Earth Systems Version: CPS05-06

Scholastic Area that Course Is Active In: Science

Strand: Characteristics of Science -- Habits of Mind

S.ChS.1 Science Inquiry: Questions & Design
Students will evaluate the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science.
Element: S.ChS.1.a
Exhibit the above traits in their own scientific activities.
Element: S.ChS.1.b
Recognize that different explanations often can be given for the same evidence.
Element: S.ChS.1.c
Explain that further understanding of scientific problems relies o­n the design and execution of new experiments which man reinformce or weaken opposing explanations.

S.ChS.2 Science Inquiry: Safety
Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations.
Element: S.ChS.2.a
Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus.
Element: S.ChS.2.b
Demonstrate appropriate technique in all laboratory situations.
Element: S.ChS.2.c
Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.

S.ChS.3 Science Inquiry: Lab Processes
Students will identify and investigate problems scientifically.
Element: S.ChS.3.a
Suggest reasonable hypotheses for identified problems.
Element: S.ChS.3.b
Develop procedures for solving scientific problems.
Element: S.ChS.3.c
Collect, organize and record appropriate data.
Element: S.ChS.3.d
Graphically compare and analyze data points and/or summary statistics.
Element: S.ChS.3.e
Develop reasonable conclusions based on data collected.
Element: S.ChS.3.f
Evaluate whether conclusions are reasonable by reviewing the process and checking against other available information.

S.ChS.4 Science Inquiry: Data Collection & Technology
Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating scientific equipment and materials.
Element: S.ChS.4.a
Develop and use systematic procedures for recording and organizing information.
Element: S.ChS.4.b
Use technology to produce tables and graphs.
Element: S.ChS.4.c
Use technology to develop, test, and revise experimental or mathematical models.

S.ChS.5 Science Inquiry: Research & Analysis
Students will demonstrate the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and developing reasonable scientific explanations.
Element: S.ChS.5.a
Trace the source on any large disparity between estimated and calculated answers to problems.
Element: S.ChS.5.b
Consider possible effects of measurement errors on calculations.
Element: S.ChS.5.c
Recognize the relationship between accuracy and precision.
Element: S.ChS.5.d
Express appropriate numbers of significant figures for calculated data, using scientific notation where appropriate.
Element: S.ChS.5.e
Solve scientific problems by substituting quantitative values, using dimensional analysis and/or simple algebraic formulas as appropriate.

S.ChS.6 Science Inquiry: Reporting & Reference
Students will communicate scientific investigations and information clearly.
Element: S.ChS.6.a

Write celar, coherent laboratory reports related to scientific investigations.

Element: S.ChS.6.b
Write clear, coherent accounts of current scientific issues, including possible alternative interpretations of the data.
Element: S.ChS.6.c
Use data as evidence to support scientific arguments and claims in written or oral presentations.
Element: S.ChS.6.d
Participate in group discussions of scientific investigation and current scientific issues.

Strand: Charcteristics of Science -- The Nature of Science

S.ChS.7 Science Inquiry: System Analysis & Reference
Students analyze how scientific knowledge is developed. Students recognize that:
Element: S.ChS.7.a
The universe is a vast single system in which the basic principles are the same everywhere.
Element: S.ChS.7.b
Universal principles are discovered through observation and experimental verification.
Element: S.ChS.7.c
From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Major shifts in scientific views typically occur after the observation of a new phenomenon or an insightful interpretation of existing data by an individual or research group.
Element: S.ChS.7.d
Hypotheses often cause scientists to develop new experiments that produce additional data.
Element: S.ChS.7.e
Testing, revising, and ccasionally rejecting new and old theories never ends.

S.ChS.8 Science Inquiry: Science Processes
Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. Students will apply the following to inquiry learning practices:
Element: S.ChS.8.a
Scientific investigators control the conditions of their experiments in order to produce valuable data.
Element: S.ChS.8.b
Scientific researchers are expected to critically assess the quality of data including possible sources of bias in their investigations' hypotheses, observations, data analyses, and interpretations.
Element: S.ChS.8.c
Scientists use practices such as peer review and publication to reinforce the integrity of scientific activity and reporting.
Element: S.ChS.8.d
The merit of a new theory is judged by how well scientific data are explained by the new theory.
Element: S.ChS.8.e
The ultimate goal of science is to develop an understanding of the natrual universe which is free of biases.
Element: S.ChS.8.f
Science disciplines and traditions differ from one another in what is studied, techniques used, and outcomes sought.

S.ChS.9 Reading in Science
Students will enhance reading in all curriculum areas by:
Element: S.ChS.9.a
Reading in all curriculum areas
  • Read a minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books per year from a variety of subject disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas.
  • Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse.
  • Read technical texts related to various subject areas.
  • Element: S.ChS.9.b
    Discussing books
  • Discuss messages and themes from books in all subject areas.
  • Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse.
  • Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area.
  • Evaluate the merit of texts in every subject discipline.
  • Examine author's purpose in writing.
  • Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.
  • Element: S.ChS.9.c
    Building vocabulary knowledge
  • Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in various subjects.
  • Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking.
  • Explore understanding of new words found in subject area texts.
  • Element: S.ChS.9.d
    Establishing context
  • Explore life experiences related to subject area content.
  • Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject area related.
  • Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words.

    Strand: Earth Systems

    Students will investigate the composition and formation of Earth systems, including the Earth's relationship to the solar system.
    Element: SES1.a
    Describe the early evolution of the Earth and solar system, including the formation of Earth's solid layers (core, mantle, crust), the distribution of major elements, the origin of internal heat sources, and the initiation of plate tectonics.
    Element: SES1.b
    Explain how the composition of the Earth's crust, mantle and core is determined and compare it to that of other solar system objects.
    Element: SES1.c
    Describe how the decay of radioactive isotopes is used to determine the age of rocks, Earth, and solar system.
    Element: SES1.d
    Describe how the Earth acquired its initial oceans and atmosphere.
    Element: SES1.e
    Identify the transformations that make up the rock cycle, hydrolic cycle, and carbon cycle.

    Students will understand how plate tectonics creates certain geologic features, materials, and hazards.
    Element: SES2.a
    Distinguish among types of plate tectonic settings produced by plates diverging, converging, and sliding past each other.
    Element: SES2.b
    Relate modern and ancient geologic features to each kind of plate tectonic setting.
    Element: SES2.c
    Relate certain geologic hazards to specific plate tectonic settings.
    Element: SES2.d
    Associate specific plate tectonic settings with the production of particular groups of igneous and metamorphic rocks and mineral resources.
    Element: SES2.e
    Explain how plate tectonics creates and destroys sedimentary basins through time.

    Students will explore the actions of water, wind, and gravity that create landforms and systems of landforms (landscapes).
    Element: SES3.a
    Describe how surface water and groundwater act as the major agents of physical and chemical weathering.
    Element: SES3.b
    Explain how soil results from weathering and biological processes acting on parent rock.
    Element: SES3.c
    Describe the processes and hazards associated with both sudden and gradual mass wasting.
    Element: SES3.d
    Relate the past and present actions of ice, wind, and water to the types and distributions of erosional and depositional features in landscapes.
    Element: SES3.e
    Identify preserved erosional and depositional features and use them to reconstruct preexisting landscapes.

    Students will understand how rock relationships and fossils are used to reconstruct the Earth's past.
    Element: SES4.a
    Describe and apply principles of relative age: superposition, original horizontality, cross-cutting relations, and original lateral continuity.
    Element: SES4.b
    Identify the features of each type of unconformity: disconformity, angular unconformity, nonconformity.
    Element: SES4.c
    Interpret the geologic history of a succession of rocks and unconformities.
    Element: SES4.d
    Apply the principle of uniformitarianism to relate sedimentary rock associations and their fossils to the environments in which the rocks were deposited.
    Element: SES4.e
    Correlate discontinuous rock units using a variety of methods (e.g., the principle of fossil succession, radiometric dating, and paleomagnetism).

    Students will investigate the interaction of insolation and Earth systems to produce weather and climate.
    Element: SES5.a
    Explain how latitudinal variations in solar heating create atmospheric and ocean currents that redistribute heat globally.
    Element: SES5.b
    Explain the relationship between air masses and the surfaces over which they form.
    Element: SES5.c
    Relate weather patterns to interactions among ocean currents, air masses, and topography.
    Element: SES5.d
    Describe how temperature and precipitation produce the pattern of climate regions (classes) on Earth.
    Element: SES5.e
    Describe the hazards associated with extreme weather events and climate change (e.g., hurricanes, tornadoes, El Niņo/La Niņa, global warming).
    Element: SES5.f
    Relate changes in global climate to variation in Earth/Sun relationships and to natural and anthropogenic modification of atmospheric composition.

    Students will explain how life on Earth responds to and shapes Earth systems.
    Element: SES6.a
    Relate the nature and distribution of life on Earth, including humans, to the chemistry and availability of water.
    Element: SES6.b
    Relate the distribution of biomes (terrestrial, freshwater, and marine) to climate regions through time.
    Element: SES6.c
    Explain how geological and ecological processes interact through time to cycle matter and energy, and how human activity alters the rates of these processes (e.g., fossil fuel formation and combustion).
    Element: SES6.d
    Describe how fossils provide a record of shared ancestry, evolution, and extinction that is best explained by the mechanism of natural selection.
    Element: SES6.e
    Identify the evolutionary innovations that most profoundly shaped Earth systems: photosynthesis and the atmosphere; multicellular animals and marine environments; land plants and terrestrial environments.

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