Economics Version: CPS08-09

Scholastic Area that Course Is Active In: Social Studies

Strand: Economic Understandings

The student will explain why limited productive resources and unlimited wants result in scarcity, opportunity costs and trade offs for individuals, businesses and governments.
Element: SSEF1.a
Define scarcity as a basic condition which exists when limited productive resources exceed unlimited wants.
Element: SSEF1.b
Define and give examples of productive resources as land (natural), labor (human), capital (capital goods), entrepreneurship.
Element: SSEF1.c
List a variety of strategies for allocating scarce resources.
Element: SSEF1.d
Define opportunity cost as the next best alternative given up when individuals, businesses and governments confront scarcity by making choices.

The student will give examples of how rational decision making entails comparing the marginal benefits and the marginal costs of an action.
Element: SSEF2.a
Illustrate by means of a production possibilities curve the trade offs between two options.
Element: SSEF2.b
Explain that rational decisions occur when the marginal benefits of an action equal or exceed the marginal costs.

The student will explain how specialization and voluntary exchange between buyers and sellers increase the satisfaction of both parties.
Element: SSEF3.a
Give examples of how individuals and businesses specialize.
Element: SSEF3.b
Explain that both parties gain as a result of voluntary, non-fraudulent exchange.

The student will compare and contrast different economic systems, and explain how they answer the three basic economic questions of what to produce, how to produce and for whom to produce.
Element: SSEF4.a
Compare command, market, and mixed economic systems with regard to private ownership, profit motive, consumer sovereignty, competition, government regulation.
Element: SSEF4.b
Evaluate how well each type of system answers the three economic questions and meets the broad social and economic goals of freedom, security, equity, growth, efficiency and stability.

The student will describe the roles of government in a market economy.
Element: SSEF5.a
Explain why government provides public goods and services, redistributes income, protects property rights and resolves market failures.
Element: SSEF5.b
Give examples of government regulation and deregulation and their effects on consumers and producers.

The student will explain how productivity, economic growth and future standards of living are influenced by investment in factories, machinery, new technology and the health, education and training of people.
Element: SSEF6.a
Define productivity as the relationship of inputs to outputs.
Element: SSEF6.b
Give illustrations of investment in equipment and technology and explain their relationship to economic growth.
Element: SSEF6.c
Give examples of how investment in education can lead to a higher standard of living.

The student will describe how households, businesses and governments are interdependent and interact through flows of goods, services and money.
Element: SSEMI1.a
Illustrate by means of a circular flow diagram, the Product market, the Resource market, the real flow of goods and services between and among businesses, households and government, and the flow of money.
Element: SSEMI1.b
Explain the role of money and how it facilitates exchange.

The student will explain how the Law of Demand, the Law of Supply, prices and profits work to determine production and distribution in a market economy.
Element: SSEMI2.a
Define the Law of Supply and the Law of Demand.
Element: SSEMI2.b
Describe the role of buyers and sellers in determining market clearing price.
Element: SSEMI2.c
Illustrate on a graph how supply and demand determine equilibrium price and quantity.
Element: SSEMI2.d
Explain how prices serve as incentives in a market economy.

The student will explain how markets, prices and competition influence economic behavior.
Element: SSEMI3.a
Identify and illustrate on a graph, factors that cause changes in market supply and demand.
Element: SSEMI3.b
Explain and illustrate on a graph how price floors create surpluses and price ceilings create shortages.
Element: SSEMI3.c
Define price elasticity of demand and supply.

The student will explain the organization and role of business, and analyze the four types of market structures in the U.S. economy.
Element: SSEMI4.a
Compare and contrast three forms of business organization--sole proprietorship, partnership, and corporation.
Element: SSEMI4.b
Explain the role of profit as an incentive for entrepreneurs.
Element: SSEMI4.c
Identify the basic characteristics of monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition and pure competition.

The student will illustrate the means by which economic activity is measured.
Element: SSEMA1.a
Explain that overall levels of income, employment and prices are determined by the spending and production decisions of households, businesses, government and net exports.
Element: SSEMA1.b
Define Gross Domestic Product (GDP), economic growth, unemployment, Consumer Price Index (CPI), inflation, stagflation and aggregate supply and aggregate demand.
Element: SSEMA1.c
Explain how economic growth, inflation and unemployment are calculated.
Element: SSEMA1.d
Identify structural, cyclical and frictional unemployment.
Element: SSEMA1.e
Define the stages of the business cycle as well as recession and depression.
Element: SSEMA1.f
Describe the difference between the national debt and government deficits.

The student will explain the role and functions of the Federal Reserve System
Element: SSEMA2.a
Describe the organization of the Federal Reserve System.
Element: SSEMA2.b
Define Monetary policy.
Element: SSEMA2.c
Describe how the Federal Reserve uses the tools of monetary policy to promote price stability, full employment and economic growth.

The student will explain how the government uses fiscal policy to promote price stability, full employment and economic growth.
Element: SSEMA3.a
Define fiscal policy.
Element: SSEMA3.b
Explain the government's taxing and spending decisions.

The student will explain why individuals, businesses and governments trade goods and services.
Element: SSEIN1.a
Define and distinguish between absolute advantage and comparative advantage.
Element: SSEIN1.b
Explain that most trade takes place because of comparative advantage in the production of a good or service.
Element: SSEIN1.c
Explain the difference between balance of trade and balance of payments.

The student will explain why countries sometimes erect trade barriers and sometimes advocate free trade
Element: SSEIN2.a
Define trade barriers as tariffs, quotas, embargoes, standards and subsidies.
Element: SSEIN2.b
Identify costs and benefits of trade barriers over time.
Element: SSEIN2.c
List specific examples of trade barriers.
Element: SSEIN2.d
List specific examples of trading blocks such as the EU, NAFTA, ASEAN.
Element: SSEIN2.e
Evaluate arguments for and against free trade.

The student will explain how changes in exchange rates can impact the purchasing power of individuals in the United States and in other countries.
Element: SSEIN3.a
Define exchange rate as the price of one nation's currency in terms of another nation's currency.
Element: SSEIN3.b
Locate information on exchange rates.
Element: SSEIN3.c
Interpret exchange rate tables.
Element: SSEIN3.d
Explain why, when exchange rates change, some groups benefit and others lose.

The student will apply rational decision to the making of personal spending and savings choices.
Element: SSEPF1.a
Explain that people respond to positive and negative incentives in predictable ways.
Element: SSEPF1.b
Use a rational decision making model to select one option over another.
Element: SSEPF1.c
Create a savings or financial investment plan for a future goal.

The student will explain that banks and other financial institutions are businesses which channel funds from savers to investors.
Element: SSEPF2.a
Compare services offered by different financial institutions.
Element: SSEPF2.b
Explain reasons for the spread between interest charged and interest earned.
Element: SSEPF2.c
Give examples of the inverse relationship between risk and return.
Element: SSEPF2.d
Evaluate a variety of savings and investment options, including stocks, bonds and mutual funds.

The student will explain how changes in monetary and fiscal policy can impact an individual's spending and savings choices.
Element: SSEPF3.a
Give examples of who benefits and who loses from inflation.
Element: SSEPF3.b
Define progressive, regressive and proportional taxes.
Element: SSEPF3.c
Explain how an increase in sales tax affects different income groups.

The student will evaluate the costs and benefits of using credit.
Element: SSEPF4.a
List factors that affect credit worthiness.
Element: SSEPF4.b
Compare interest rates on loans and credit cards from different institutions.
Element: SSEPF4.c
Explain the difference between simple and compound interest rates.

The student will describe how insurance and other risk-management strategies protect against financial loss.
Element: SSEPF5.a
List various types of insurance such as automobile, health, life, disability and property.
Element: SSEPF5.b
Explain the costs and benefits associated with different types of insurance.

The student will describe how the earnings of workers are determined in the marketplace.
Element: SSEPF6.a
Identify skills which are required to be successful in the workplace.
Element: SSEPF6.b
Explain the significance of investment in education, training and skill development.

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