Anatomy and Physiology Version: CPS05-06

Scholastic Area that Course Is Active In: Science

Strand: Characteristics of Science -- Habits of Mind

S.ChS.1 Science Inquiry: Questions & Design
The learner will evaluate the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science:
Element: S.ChS.1.a
Exhibit the above traits in their own scientific activities
Element: S.ChS.1.b
Recognize that different explanations often can be given for the same evidence
Element: S.ChS.1.c
Explain that further understanding of scientific problems relies on the design and execution of new experiments which may reinforce or weaken opposing explanations.

S.ChS.2 Science Inquiry: Safety
The learner will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations:
Element: S.ChS.2.a
Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus
Element: S.ChS.2.b
Demonstrate appropriate technique in all laboratory situations
Element: S.ChS.2.c
Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.

S.ChS.3 Science Inquiry: Lab Processes
The learner will identify and investigate problems scientifically:
Element: S.ChS.3.a
Suggest reasonable hypotheses for identified problems
Element: S.ChS.3.b
Develop procedures for solving scientific problems
Element: S.ChS.3.c
Collect, organize and record appropriate data
Element: S.ChS.3.d
Graphically compare and analyze data points and/or summary statistics
Element: S.ChS.3.e
Develop reasonable conclusions based on data collected
Element: S.ChS.3.f
Evaluate whether conclusions are reasonable by reviewing the process and checking against other available information.

S.ChS.4 Science Inquiry: Data Collection & Technology
The learner will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating scientific equipment and materials:
Element: S.ChS.4.a
Develop and use systematic procedures for recording and organizing information
Element: S.ChS.4.b
Use technology to produce tables and graphs
Element: S.ChS.4.c
Use technology to develop, test, and revise experimental or mathematical models.

S.ChS.5 Science Inquiry: Research & Analysis
The learner will demonstrate the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and developing reasonable scientific explanations:
Element: S.ChS.5.a
Trace the source on any large disparity between estimated and calculated answers to problems
Element: S.ChS.5.b
Consider possible effects of measurement errors on calculations
Element: S.ChS.5.c
Recognize the relationship between accuracy and precision
Element: S.ChS.5.d
Express appropriate numbers of significant figures for calculated data, using scientific notation where appropriate
Element: S.ChS.5.e
Solve scientific problems by substituting quantitative values, using dimensional analysis and/or simple algebraic formulas as appropriate.

S.ChS.6 Science Inquiry: Reporting & Reference
The learner will communicate scientific investigations and information clearly:
Element: S.ChS.6.a
Write clear, coherent laboratory reports related to scientific investigations
Element: S.ChS.6.b
Write clear, coherent accounts of current scientific issues, including possible alternative interpretations of the data
Element: S.ChS.6.c
Use data as evidence to support scientific arguments and claims in written or oral presentations
Element: S.ChS.6.d
Participate in group discussions of scientific investigation and current scientific issues.

Strand: Charcteristics of Science -- The Nature of Science

S.ChS.7 Science Inquiry: System Analysis & Reference
The learner will analyze how scientific knowledge is developed. Learners will recognize that:
Element: S.ChS.7.a
The universe is a vast single system in which the basic principles are the same everywhere
Element: S.ChS.7.b
Universal principles are discovered through observation and experimental verification
Element: S.ChS.7.c
From time to time, major shifts occur in the scientific view of how the world works. More often, however, the changes that take place in the body of scientific knowledge are small modifications of prior knowledge. Major shifts in scientific views typically occur after the observation of a new phenomenon or an insightful interpretation of existing data by an individual or research group
Element: S.ChS.7.d
Hypotheses often cause scientists to develop new experiments that produce additional data
Element: S.ChS.7.e
Testing, revising, and occasionally rejecting new and old theories never ends.

S.ChS.8 Science Inquiry: Science Processes
The learner will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry. The learner will apply the following to inquiry learning practices:
Element: S.ChS.8.a
Scientific investigators control the conditions of their experiments in order to produce valuable data
Element: S.ChS.8.b
Scientific researchers are expected to critically assess the quality of data including prossible sources of bias in the investigations' hypotheses, observations, data analyses, and interpretations
Element: S.ChS.8.c
Scientists use practices such as peer review and publication to reinforce the integrity of scientific activity and reporting
Element: S.ChS.8.d
The merit of a new theory is judged by how well scientific data are explained by the new theory
Element: S.ChS.8.e
The ultimate goal of science is to develop an understanding of the natural universe which is free of biases
Element: S.ChS.8.f
Science disciplines and traditions differ from one another in what is studied, techniques used, and outcomes sought.

S.ChS.9 Reading in Science
The learner will enhance reading in science by:
Element: S.ChS.9.a
Reading in specific science areas: Read the appropriate fraction of the total minimum of 25 grade-level appropriate books (or equivalent science articles or essays) per year from the science disciplines and participate in discussions related to curricular learning in all areas; Read both informational and fictional texts in a variety of genres and modes of discourse appropriate to the science course; Read technical texts related to the science subject areas.
Element: S.ChS.9.b
Discussing books: Discuss messages and themes from books within the science area; Respond to a variety of texts in multiple modes of discourse; Relate messages and themes from one subject area to messages and themes in another area; Evaluate the merit of texts within science disciplines; Examine author's purpose in writing; Recognize the features of disciplinary texts.
Element: S.ChS.9.c
Building vocabulary knowledge: Demonstrate an understanding of contextual vocabulary in science; Use content vocabulary in writing and speaking; Explore understanding of new words found in science.
Element: S.ChS.9.d
Establishing context: Explore life experiences related to science content or characteristics of science; Discuss in both writing and speaking how certain words are subject are related; Determine strategies for finding content and contextual meaning for unknown words.

Strand: Anatomy & Physiology

Students will analyze anatomical structures in relationship to their physiological functions.
Element: SAP1.a
Apply correct terminology when explaining the orientation of body parts and regions.
Element: SAP1.b
Investigate the interdependence of the various body systems to each other and to the body as a whole.
Element: SAP1.c
Explain the role of homeostasis and its mechanisms as these relate to the body as a whole and predict the consequences of the failure to maintain homeostasis.
Element: SAP1.d
Relate cellular metabolism and transport to homeostasis and cellular reproduction.
Element: SAP1.e
Describe how structure and function are related in terms of cell and tissue types.

Students will analyze the interdependence of the integumentary, skeletal, and muscular systems as these relate to the protection, support and movement of the human body.
Element: SAP2.a
Relate the structures of the integumentary system to its functional role in protecting the body and maintaining homeostasis.
Element: SAP2.b
Explain how the skeletal structures provide support and protection for tissues, and function togther with the muscular system to make movements possible.

Students will assess the integration and coordination of body functions and their dependence on the endocrine and nervous systems to regulate physiological activities.
Element: SAP3.a
Interpret interactions among hormones, senses, and nerves which make possible the coordination of functions of the body.
Element: SAP3.b
Investigate the physiology of electrchemical impulses and neural integration and trace the pathway of an impulse, relating biochemical changes involved in the conduction of the impulse.
Element: SAP3.c
Describe how the body perceives internal and external stimuli and responds to maintain a stable internal environment.

Students will analyze the physical, chemical, and biological properties of process systems as these relate to transportation, absorbtion and excretion, including the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory and immune systems.
Element: SAP4.a
Describe the chemical and physical mechanisms of digestion, elimination, transportation, and absorbtion within the body to change food and derive energy.
Element: SAP4.b
Analyze the relationships between the respiratory and cardiovascular systems as they obtain oxygen needed for the oxidation of nutrients and removal of carbon dioxide.
Element: SAP4.c
Explain how the cardiovascular system and blood provide a link between the cells by transporting nutrients and oxygen and removing carbon dioxide.
Element: SAP4.d
Relate the role of the urinary sytstem to regulation of body wastes (i.e. water-electrolyte balance, volume of body fluids).
Element: SAP4.e
Examine various conditions that change normal body functions (e.g. tissue rejection, allergies, injury, disease and disorders) and how the body responds.

Students will analyze the role of the reproductive system as it pertains to the growth and development of humans.
Element: SAP5.a
Identify the structures and functions of the male and female reproductive systems and disorders commonly associated with each.
Element: SAP5.b
Explain how the functions of the reproductive organs are regulated by hormonal interactions.
Element: SAP5.c
Describe the stages of human embryology and gestation including investigation of gestational and congenital disorders (e.g. ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, cleft palate, hydrocephaly, fetal alcohol syndrome).
Element: SAP5.d
Describe the stages of development from birth to adulthood (i.e. neonatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence and puberty, and maturity).
Element: SAP5.e
Describe effects of aging on all body systems.

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