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7th Grade Learning

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Learning in Cobb - 7th Grade Learning



 

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What Do Students Learn In 7th Grade?

 

7th GRADE LEARNING :

The Cobb County School District is committed to providing your child an academic experience that will develop his or her knowledge and skills at every grade level and to ensuring a strong foundation is established for your child to reach his or her greatest potential.

Our teaching is aligned with content standards and our teachers bring those standards to life for your child through various strategies designed to meet your child’s learning strengths and needs.

In Cobb County classrooms, students are immersed every day in learning experiences based on exploration, problem-solving, and critical thinking in all content areas including the core areas of English Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science. Connections classes allow students to enjoy specialized academic content including Career Tech*, Health, Music, Physical Education, Technology, Visual Arts, and World Languages*. Excellence in teaching guides your child’s educational experience from Kindergarten to graduation and into life.

* Programming available varies at local schools

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS:
Seventh grade students read both informational and literary texts. Through close reading and analysis, students determine the meaning and purpose of a variety of texts. Students read multiple texts centered around a common theme or idea and made connections among these texts. Students respond to the texts they read through speaking and writing. They write and use evidence from multiple texts or sources to inform, explain, or make an argument. Students support their claims using clear and relevant evidence to convey ideas and information. Seventh grade students engage in rich and rigorous discussion about texts and communicate using multiple media formats in group and individual presentations.

MATHEMATICS:
Seventh grade students learn conceptually how to compute with negative rational numbers. This concept is applied to expressions, equations and proportional relationships with two variables. Students dig deeper into geometry with area and circumference of circles, cross sections, angle investigation, surface area, volume, and scale drawings. Seventh graders will explore real-world examples of comparing sample populations and drawing inferences about the populations based upon data. This will be the student’s first experience with simple probability by making predictions of possible events occurring.

SCIENCE:
In Life Science, seventh graders begin a more in-depth and scientific study of life and living organisms. Life science is a study of life at all levels ranging from simple molecules to complex ecosystems. Students explore the structure, function, growth, evolution, diversity, and distribution of living things on our amazing planet. In addition, students apply their knowledge of common features to consider how each organism is uniquely suited to survive. A hands-on, investigative approach helps students build understanding of these vital life processes as it prepares them for future study.

SOCIAL STUDIES:
The second year of a two-year course called World Area Studies is completed in 7th grade. Students study Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Emphasis is on economics, geography, government, and history. Through study of map skills, students apply contextual knowledge to the world around them. Exploring regional development, students explain how characteristics such as population, productivity levels, and location influence people. Students study money management and learn about income, investments, and credit.

CONNECTIONS:
Schools offer varying Connections classes for middle school students. Connections can include, but are not limited to, Health, Physical Education, Visual Arts, Performing Arts, Band, Orchestra, Chorus, Career Tech and Foreign Language. The purpose of Connections is to provide broad and rich exposure to areas that nurture student interest, talent, and skills.


PARENTS TIPS: Reading
 Ask questions of your 7th grader daily about their learning. Stay involved in your child’s learning by helping with homework and providing study help for assessments. Daily reading as a family is an enjoyable and important way to grow a love of learning. Books are now available for download to electronic and digital devices and can easily be shared for family enjoyment. Students love to self-select books on topics and subjects they enjoy such as novels, informational (nonfiction) texts, magazines, and online books.

Revised 10.16.19
 

How Do We Assess Students In 7th Grade?

 

7th GRADE ASSESSMENT:

Your child will have a variety of classroom assessments that will aid his or her teacher in knowing how to provide the best possible instruction for your child. Also, these assessments will help you know how well your child is learning and what extra support may be needed. In addition, your child will participate in standardized assessments that are used to gauge how well your child is doing, based upon his or her grade level expectations.

Seventh graders take two standardized assessments first semester, the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) and the IOWA. The CogAT is a norm-referenced test, which measures reasoning and problem-solving skills in three different areas: verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal. The IOWA assessment is a norm-referenced test that measures academic achievement in core areas.

The State of Georgia requires that students in grades 6-8 participate in the annual administration of state assessments. The state assessment is called the Georgia Milestones Assessment System. Students in grade 7 will take an End of Grade (EOG) assessment as part of the Georgia Milestones in math and language arts. The EOG will include multiple choice, short answer, and technology-enhanced questions. The language arts EOG has a third section, which focuses on writing.

All students in grades K-9 participate in the universal screening process for reading and math using a digital inventory. Your seventh grader’s progress in reading and math will be measured three times a year.

TESTING IN 7th GRADE:

Mark the Calendar: CogAT and IOWA: September
7th grade End of Grade (EOG): April-May

Question Types:  Students respond to multiple-choice questions, called selected-response. They also write short answers to grade-appropriate questions. Higher-order thinking skills are employed at all levels of testing. Performance-based assessments and assignments give hands-on opportunities to express learning at different rates and levels.


PARENT TIPS: Assessment
Parents can support students in easing any concern or anxiety about assessment:

  • Talk with your child about any tests or assessments.
  • Explain that assessment is a natural and important part of any learning. Tests help students understand their thinking better and make improvements for better performance in the future.
  • Remind your child to pay attention to the directions and to listen carefully as they are read. Encourage your child to take time to understand the questions before selecting an answer.
  • A good night’s rest is the best way to arrive focused on test day!

Remember that assessment is an important and helpful part of learning for students of all ages. Your support and involvement in your child’s education is critical to success in school and in life. Research shows when parents play a key role in their child’s learning, their child’s achievement excels.

Revised 10.16.19
 

What Instructional Resources Are Used In 7th Grade?

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD A LIST OF BOARD APPROVED INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES FOR SEVENTH GRADE
CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD A LIST OF BOARD APPROVED CTAE INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL

Instructional resources are provided to students and teachers to support teaching and learning. The titles listed below have been recommended to our Board by a committee of teachers, parents and community representatives and approved through the textbook adoption process (See Board Rule IFAA-R). Additional resources to enhance the instruction are constantly added by local schools and individual teachers.

 

Course/Content Area 

Resource 

Publisher 

English Language Arts

SpringBoard

CollegeBoard

Mathematics

Glencoe GA Math
7 Plus, Grade 7

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Science

GA Science & Technology Life Science

HMH

Science

Science Dimensions

HMH

Social Studies

Clairmont World Studies

Clairmont World Studies

 

What Is My Student's Framework For Learning In 7th Grade?

 

Seventh Grade Teaching & Learning Frameworks
English/Language Arts  |  Math  |  Science  |  Social Studies

 

Learning & Assessing Postcards 


English    |    En Español   |    한국어로    |    Em Português


 

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Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - English Language Arts

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 7th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR ELA

READING LITERARY – RL

Key Ideas and Details 

ELAGSE7RL1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

ELAGSE7RL2 Determine a theme and/or of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. 

ELAGSE7RL3 Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama interact (e.g., how settings shape the characters or plot). 

Craft and Structure 

ELAGSE7RL4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. 

ELAGSE7RL5 Analyze how drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning. 

ELAGSE7RL6 Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text. 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 

ELAGSE7RL7 Compare and contrast a written story, drama, or poem to its audio, filmed, staged, or multimedia version, analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e.g., lighting, sound, color, or camera focus and angles in a film). 

ELAGSE7RL8 (Not applicable to literature). 

ELAGSE7RL9 Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means or understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

ELAGSE7RL10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 

READING INFORMATIONAL – RI

Key Ideas and Details 

ELAGSE7RI1 Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

ELAGSE7RI2 Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze their development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. 

ELAGSE7RI3 Analyze the interactions between individuals, events, and ideas in a text (e.g., how ideas influence individuals or events, or how individuals influence ideas or events). 

Craft and Structure 

ELAGSE7RI4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. 

ELAGSE7RI5 Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text, including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. 

ELAGSE7RI6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. 

Integration of Knowledge and ideas 

ELAGSE7RI7 Compare and contrast a text to an audio, video, or multimedia version of the text, analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e.g., how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). 

ELAGSE7RI8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. 

ELAGSE7RI9 Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing the different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

ELAGSE7RI10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 

WRITING – W 

Text Types and Purpose 

ELAGSE7W1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELAGSE7W2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

ELAGSE7W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing

ELAGSE7W4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1–3 above.)

ELAGSE7W5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language Standards 1–3 up to and including grade7.)

ELAGSE7W6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others, including linking to and citing sources.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
ELAGSE7W7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions for further research and investigation.

ELAGSE7W8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

ELAGSE7W9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

a. Apply grade 7 Reading Standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”).
bApply grade 7 Reading Standards to literary nonfiction (e.g. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”).

Range of Writing

ELAGSE7W10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING – SL

Comprehension and Collaboration 

ELAGSE7SL1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
b. Follow rules for collegial discussions, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
c. Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed.
d. Acknowledge new information expressed by others and, when warranted, modify their own views and understanding.

ELAGSE7SL2 Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic, text, or issue under study. 

ELAGSE7SL3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 

ELAGSE7SL4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with pertinent descriptions, facts, details, and examples; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 

ELAGSE7SL5 Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. 

ELAGSE7SL6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language Standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.) 

LANGUAGE – L 

Conventions of Standard English 

ELAGSE7L1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.
b. Choose among simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.
c. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence, recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.*

ELAGSE7L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e.g., It was a fascinating, enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[,] green shirt).
b. Spell correctly.

Knowledge of Language 

ELAGSE7L3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.*

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 

ELAGSE7L4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., belligerent, bellicose, rebel).
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELAGSE7L5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., literary, biblical, and mythological allusions) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonym/antonym, analogy) to better understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., refined, respectful, polite, diplomatic, condescending).

ELAGSE7L6 Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. 

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Mathematics

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 7th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR MATH

Standards for Mathematical Practice 

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning , strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately) and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.

In grade 7, students solve problems involving ratios and rates and discuss how they solved them. Students solve real world problems through the application of algebraic and geometric concepts. Students seek the meaning of a problem and look for efficient ways to represent and solve it. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, “What is the most efficient way to solve the problem?”, “Does this make sense?”, and “Can I solve the problem in a different way?”

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 

In grade 7, students represent a wide variety of real world contexts through the use of real numbers and variables in mathematical expressions, equations, and inequalities. Students contextualize to understand the meaning of the number or variable as related to the problem and decontextualize to manipulate symbolic representations by applying properties of operations.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 

In grade 7, students construct arguments using verbal or written explanations accompanied by expressions, equations, inequalities, models, and graphs, tables, and other data displays (i.e. box plots, dot plots, histograms, etc.). They further refine their mathematical communication skills through mathematical discussions in which they critically evaluate their own thinking and the thinking of other students. They pose questions like “How did you get that?”, “Why is that true?” “Does that always work?” They explain their thinking to others and respond to others’ thinking.

4. Model with mathematics. 

In grade 7, students model problem situations symbolically, graphically, tabularly, and contextually. Students form expressions, equations, or inequalities from real world contexts and connect symbolic and graphical representations. Students explore covariance and represent two quantities simultaneously. They use measures of center and variability and data displays (i.e. box plots and histograms) to draw inferences, make comparisons and formulate predictions. Students use experiments or simulations to generate data sets and create probability models. Students need many opportunities to connect and explain the connections between the different representations. They should be able to use all of these representations as appropriate to a problem context 

5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 

Students consider available tools (including estimation and technology) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, students in grade 7 may decide to represent similar data sets using dot plots with the same scale to visually compare the center and variability of the data. Students might use physical objects or applets to generate probability data and use graphing calculators or spreadsheets to manage and represent data in different forms. 

6. Attend to precision. 

In grade 7, students continue to refine their mathematical communication skills by using clear and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. Students define variables, specify units of measure, and label axes accurately. Students use appropriate terminology when referring to rates, ratios, probability models, geometric figures, data displays, and components of expressions, equations or inequalities.

7. Look for and make use of structure. 

Students routinely seek patterns or structures to model and solve problems. For instance, students recognize patterns that exist in ratio tables making connections between the constant of proportionality in a table with the slope of a graph. Students apply properties to generate equivalent expressions (i.e. 6 + 2= 3 (2 + x) by distributive property) and solve equations (i.e. 2+ 3 = 15, 2= 12 by subtraction property of equality), c = 6 by division property of equality). Students compose and decompose two‐and three‐dimensional figures to solve real world problems involving scale drawings, surface area, and volume. Students examine tree diagrams or systematic lists to determine the sample space for compound events and verify that they have listed all possibilities.

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. 

In grade 7, students use repeated reasoning to understand algorithms and make generalizations about patterns. During multiple opportunities to solve and model problems, they may notice that a/b ÷ c/d = ad/bc and construct other examples and models that confirm their generalization. They extend their thinking to include complex fractions and rational numbers. Students formally begin to make connections between covariance, rates, and representations showing the relationships between quantities. They create, explain, evaluate, and modify probability models to describe simple and compound events. 

Ratios and Proportional Relationships (7.RP) 

Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real‐world and mathematical problems. 

MGSE7.RP.1 Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction (1/2)/(1/4) miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour.

MGSE7.RP.2 Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities.

a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin.
b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships.
c. Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost is proportional to the number of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn.
d. Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1,r) where r is the unit rate.

MGSE7.RP.3 Use proportional relationships to solve multistep ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, and fees.

The Number System (7.NS) 

Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. 

MGSE7.NS.1 Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram.

a. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, your bank account balance is -$25.00. You deposit $25.00 into your account. The net balance is $0.00.
b. Understand p + q as the number located a distance || from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real world contexts.
c. Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p – q = p + (– q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real‐world contexts.
d. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers.

MGSE7.NS.2 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.

a. Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as (- 1)(– 1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real‐world contexts.
b. Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non‐zero divisor) is a rational number. If and are integers then – (p/q) = (– p)/q = p/(–q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real‐world contexts.
c. Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers.
d. Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.

MGSE7.NS.3 Solve real‐world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers.

Expressions and Equations (7.EE) 

Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. 

MGSE7.EE.1 Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients.

MGSE7.EE.2 Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can clarify the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example a + 0.05a = 1.05a means that adding a 5% tax to a total is the same as multiplying the total by 1.05. 

Solve real‐life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations 

MGSE7.EE.3 Solve multistep real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals) by applying properties of operations as strategies to calculate with numbers, converting between forms as appropriate, and assessing the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies.

For example: 

If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $27.50.
If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation. 

MGSE7.EE.4 Use variables to represent quantities in a real‐world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.

a. Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width?
b. Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + q > r or px + q < r, where p, q, and are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example, as a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions.
c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x+p = q and px = q in which p and q are rational numbers.

Geometry (7.G) 

Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them. 

MGSE7.G.1 Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale.

MGSE7.G.2 Explore various geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on creating triangles from three measures of angles and/or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle.

MGSE7.G.3 Describe the two-dimensional figures (cross sections) that result from slicing three-dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms, right rectangular pyramids, cones, cylinders, and spheres.

Solve real‐life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume. 

MGSE7.G.4 Given the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle, use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle.

MGSE7.G.5 Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi‐step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure.

MGSE7.G.6 Solve real‐world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two‐and three‐dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms.

Statistics and Probability (7.SP) 

Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population. 

MGSE7.SP.1 Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences.

MGSE7.SP.2 Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be 

Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. 

MGSE7.SP.3 Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the medians by expressing it as a multiple of the interquartile range.

MGSE7.SP.4 Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventhgrade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourthgrade science book. 

Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models. 

MGSE7.SP.5 Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event.

MGSE7.SP.6 Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency. Predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times. 

Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models continued 

MGSE7.SP.7 Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare experimental and theoretical probabilities of events. If the probabilities are not close, explain possible sources of the discrepancy.

a. Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected.
b. Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land openend down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies

MGSE7.SP.8 Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation.

a. Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample space for which the compound event occurs.
b. Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., “rolling double sixes”), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event.
c. Explain ways to set up a simulation and use the simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, if 40% of donors have type A blood, create a simulation to predict the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood? 

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Social Studies

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 7th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES

AFRICA, SOUTHWEST ASIA (MIDDLE EAST), SOUTHERN AND EASTERN ASIA

Seventh grade is the second year of a two-year World Area Studies course. Seventh grade students study Africa and Asia. The goal of this two-year course is to acquaint middle school students with the world in which they live. The geography domain includes both physical and human geography. The intent of the geography domain is for students to begin to grasp the importance geography plays in their everyday lives. The government/civics domain focuses on selected types of government found in the various areas in order to help students begin to understand the variety of governments in the world. The economics domain builds on the K-5 economics standards; however, the focus shifts from the United States to how other countries answer the basic questions of economics. The history domain focuses primarily on significant events in each region from the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

CONNECTING THEMES AND ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS 

The following connecting themes and enduring understandings will feature prominently in the course and help students increase their understanding and retention of knowledge.

1. CONFLICT AND CHANGE: The student will understand that when there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result.

2. CULTURE: The student will understand that the culture of a society is the product of the religion, beliefs, customs, traditions, and government of that society.

3. GOVERNANCE: The student will understand that as a society increases in complexity and interacts with other societies, the complexity of the government also increases.

4. HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION: The student will understand that humans, their society, and the environment affect each other.

5. LOCATION: The student will understand that location affects a society’s economy, culture, and development.

6. MOVEMENT/MIGRATION: The student will understand that the movement or migration of people and ideas affects all societies involved.

7. PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTION: The student will understand that the production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the society are affected by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.

8. TIME, CHANGE, AND CONTINUITY: The student will understand that while change occurs over time, there is continuity to the basic structure of that society.

INFORMATION PROCESSING SKILLS 

The student will be able to locate, analyze, and synthesize information related to social studies topics and apply this information to solve problems and make decisions.

1. Compare similarities and differences
2. Organize items chronologically
3. Identify issues and/or problems and alternative solutions
4. Distinguish between fact and opinion
5. Identify main idea, detail, sequence of events, and cause and effect in a social studies context
6. Identify and use primary and secondary sources
7. Interpret timelines
8. Identify social studies reference resources to use for a specific purpose
9. Construct charts and tables
10. Analyze artifacts
11. Draw conclusions and make generalizations
12. Analyze graphs and diagrams
13. Translate dates into centuries, eras, or ages
14. Formulate appropriate research questions
15. Determine adequacy and/or relevancy of information
16. Check for consistency of information
17. Interpret political cartoons

MAP AND GLOBE SKILLS 

The student will use maps and globes to retrieve social studies information.

1. Use a compass rose to identify cardinal directions
2. Use intermediate directions
3. Use a letter/number grid system to determine location
4. Compare and contrast the categories of natural, cultural, and political features found on maps
5. Use graphic scales to determine distances on a map
6. Use map key/legend to acquire information from historical, physical, political, resource, product and economic maps
7. Use a map to explain impact of geography on historical and current events
8. Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on information from maps
9. Use latitude and longitude to determine location
10. Compare maps of the same place at different points in time and from different perspectives to determine changes, identify trends, and generalize about human activities
11. Compare maps with data sets (charts, tables, graphs) and/or readings to draw conclusions and make generalizations

HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGS – Africa

SS7H1 Analyze continuity and change in Africa. 

a. Explain how the European partitioning across Africa contributed to conflict, civil war, and artificial political boundaries in Africa today.
b. Explain how the Pan-African movement and nationalism led to independence in Kenya and Nigeria.
c. Explain the creation and end of apartheid in South Africa and the roles of Nelson Mandela and F.W.de Klerk.

GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Africa

SS7G1 Locate selected features of Africa. 

a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Sahara, Sahel, savanna, tropical rain forest, Congo River, Niger River, Nile River, Lake Victoria, Great Rift Valley, Mt. Kilimanjaro, Atlas Mountains, and Kalahari Desert.
b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, and Sudan.

SS7G2 Explain environmental issues across the continent of Africa. 

a. Explain how water pollution and unequal access to water impacts irrigation, trade, industry, and drinking water.
b. Explain the relationship between poor soil and deforestation in Sub-Saharan Africa.
c. Explain the impact of desertification on the environment of Africa.

SS7G3 Explain the impact of location, climate, and physical characteristics on population distribution in Africa. 

a. Explain how the characteristics in the Sahara, Sahel, savanna, and tropical rain forest impact trade and affect where people live.

SS7G4 Analyze the diverse cultural characteristics of the people who live in Africa. 

a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group.
b. Describe the diversity of religions within African ethnic groups.

GOVERNMENT/CIVIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Africa

SS7CG1 Compare and contrast different forms of citizen participation in government. 

a. Explain the role of citizen participation in autocratic and democratic governments.
b. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.
c. Explain the role of citizens in choosing the leaders of South Africa (parliamentary democracy), Nigeria (presidential democracy), and Kenya (presidential democracy).

SS7CG2 Analyze how government instability in Africa impacts standard of living. 

a. Describe the impact of government instability on access to education and the distribution of medicine and food to combat diseases and famine across Africa.

ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Africa

SS7E1 Analyze different economic systems. 

a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain that countries have a mixed economic system located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.
c. Compare and contrast the economic systems in South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya.

SS7E2 Explain how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Africa. 

a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargoes.
c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.

SS7E3 Describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Nigeria, South Africa, and Kenya. 

a. Evaluate how literacy rates affect the standard of living.
b. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
c. Explain the relationship between investment in capital goods (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
d. Explain how the distribution of natural resources affects the economic development of Africa.
e. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGS – Southwest Asia (Middle East)

SS7H2 Analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (Middle East). 

a. Explain how European partitioning in the Middle East following WWI led to regional conflict.
b. Explain the historical factors contributing to the establishment of the modern State of Israel in 1948; include the Jewish religious connection to the land, antisemitism, the development of Zionism in Europe, and the aftermath of the Holocaust.
c. Describe how land and religion plays a role in continuing conflicts in the Middle East (i.e. the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, the division between Sunni and Shia Muslims, and Kurdish nationalism).
d. Explain U.S. presence and interest in Southwest Asia, including the Persian Gulf conflict and invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.
e. Explain how the distribution of oil has affected the development of Southwest Asia (Middle East).

GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Southwest Asia (Middle East)

SS7G5 Locate selected features in Southwest Asia (Middle East). 

a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Euphrates River, Jordan River, Tigris River, Suez Canal, Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, Arabian Sea, and Red Sea.
b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Gaza Strip, and West Bank.

SS7G6 Explain the impact of environmental issues across Southwest Asia (Middle East). 

a. Explain how water pollution and the unequal access to water impacts irrigation and drinking water.

SS7G7 Explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Southwest Asia (Middle East). 

a. Describe how the deserts and rivers of Southwest Asia (Middle East) impact trade and affect where people live.

SS7G8 Analyze the diverse cultural characteristics of the people who live in Southwest Asia (Middle East). 

a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group.
b. Describe the diversity of religions within Southwest Asian (Middle Eastern) ethnic groups (e.g., Arabs, Persians, and Kurds).
c. Compare and contrast the prominent religions in Southwest Asia (Middle East): Judaism, Islam, and Christianity.

GOVERNMENT/CIVIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Southwest Asia (Middle East)

SS7CG3 Compare and contrast various forms of government. 

a. Explain citizen participation in autocratic and democratic governments [i.e., the role of citizens in choosing the leaders of Israel (parliamentary democracy), Saudi Arabia (autocratic monarchy), and Turkey (parliamentary democracy)].
b. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.

ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Southwest Asia (Middle East)

SS7E4 Analyze different economic systems. 

a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain that countries have a mixed economic system located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.
c. Compare and contrast the economic systems in Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey.

SS7E5 Explain how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Southwest Asia (Middle East). 

a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargoes.
c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.
d. Explain the primary function of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

SS7E6 Describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Turkey. 

a. Evaluate how literacy rates affect the standard of living.
b. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
c. Explain the relationship between investment in capital goods (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
d. Explain how the distribution of oil has affected the development of Southwest Asia (Middle East).
e. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGS – Southern & Eastern Asia

SS7H3 Analyze continuity and change in Southern and Eastern Asia. 

a. Describe how nationalism led to independence in India.
b. Describe the impact of Mohandas Gandhi’s belief in non-violent protest.
c. Explain the role of the United States in the rebuilding of Japan after WWII.
d. Describe the impact of communism in China in terms of Mao Zedong, the Great Leap Forward, the Cultural Revolution, and Tiananmen Square.
e. Explain the reasons for foreign involvement in Korea and Vietnam in terms of containment of communism.

GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Southern & Eastern Asia

SS7G9 Locate selected features in Southern and Eastern Asia. 

a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Ganges River, Huang He (Yellow River), Chang Jiang (Yangtze) River, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean, Sea of Japan, South China Sea, Yellow Sea, Gobi Desert, Taklimakan Desert, Himalayan Mountains, and Korean Peninsula.
b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of China, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, and Vietnam.

SS7G10 Explain the impact of environmental issues across Southern and Eastern Asia. 

a. Explain the causes and effects of pollution on the Chang Jiang (Yangtze) and Ganges Rivers.
b. Explain the causes and effects of air pollution and flooding in India and China.

SS7G11 Explain the impact of location, climate, physical characteristics, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Southern and Eastern Asia. 

a. Describe how the mountain, desert, and water features of Southern and Eastern Asia impact trade and affect where people live.

SS7G12 Analyze the diverse cultural characteristics of the people who live in Southern and Eastern Asia. 

a. Explain the differences between an ethnic group and a religious group.
b. Compare and contrast the belief systems originating in Southern and Eastern Asia: Buddhism, Hinduism, Shintoism, and Confucianism.

GOVERNMENT/CIVIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Southern & Eastern Asia

SS7CG4 Compare and contrast various forms of government. 

a. Explain the role of citizen participation in autocratic and democratic governments [i.e. explain the role of citizens in choosing the leaders of China (communist state), Japan (parliamentary democracy), North Korea (autocracy), South Korea (presidential democracy), and India (parliamentary democracy)].
b. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.

ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Southern & Eastern Asia

SS7E7 Analyze different economic systems. 

a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain that countries have a mixed economic system located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.
c. Compare and contrast the economic systems in China, India, Japan, North Korea, and South Korea.

SS7E8 Explain how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Southern and Eastern Asia. 

a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargoes.
c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.

SS7E9 Describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in China, India, Japan, South Korea and North Korea 

a. Evaluate how literacy rates affect the standard of living.
b. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
c. Explain the relationship between investment in capital goods (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
d. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.
e. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

SS7E10 Understand that a basic principle of effective personal money management is to live within one’s income. 

a. Understand that income is received from work and is limited.
b. Understand that a budget is a tool to plan the spending and saving of income.
c. Understand the reasons and benefits of saving.
d. Understand the uses and costs of credit.

READING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES (RHSS) GRADES 6-8

Key Ideas and Details 

L6-8RHSS1: Cite specific textural evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. 

L6-8RHSS2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. 

L6-8RHSS3: Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered). 

Craft and Structure 

L6-8RHSS4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. 

L6-8RHSS5: Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally). 

L6-8RHSS6: Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 

L6-8RHSS7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. 

L6-8RHSS8: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. 

L6-8RHSS9: Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

L6-8RHSS10: By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 

WRITING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS GRADES 6-8 (WHST) GRADES 6-8 

Text Types and Purposes 

L6-8WHST1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content 

a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

L6-8WHST2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes. 

a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

L6-8WHST3: (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement) 

Production and Distribution of Writing 

L6-8WHST4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience 

L6-8WHST5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writings as needed by planning, revision, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. 

L6-8WHST6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently. 

Research to Build and Present Knowledge 

L6-8WHST7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 

L6-8WHST8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 

L6-8WHST9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. 

Range of Writing 

L6-8WHST10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Science

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 7th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR LIFE SCIENCE

Seventh Grade – Life Science Standards 

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards (CT& LS) for science are designed to provide foundational knowledge and skills for all students to develop proficiency in science. The Project 2061’s Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the follow up work, A Framework for K-12 Science Education were used as the core of the standards to determine appropriate content and process skills for students. The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards focus on a limited number of core disciplinary ideas and crosscutting concepts which build from Kindergarten to high school. The standards are written with the core knowledge to be mastered integrated with the science and engineering practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design.

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards drive instruction. Hands-on, student-centered, and inquiry-based approaches should be the emphasis of instruction. The

standards are a required minimum set of expectations that show proficiency in science. However, instruction can extend beyond these minimum expectations to meet student needs. At the same time, these standards set a maximum expectation on what will be assessed by the Georgia Milestones Assessment System.

Science consists of a way of thinking and investigating, as well a growing body of knowledge about the natural world. To become literate in science, students need to possess sufficient understanding of fundamental science content knowledge, the ability to engage in the science and engineering practices, and to use scientific and technological information correctly. Technology should be infused into the curriculum and the safety of the student should always be foremost in instruction.

The Seventh Grade Teaching and Learning Standards for science are designed to give all students the necessary skills for a smooth transition from elementary life science standards to high school biology standards. The purpose is to give all students an overview of common strands in life science including, but not limited to, diversity of living organisms, structure and function of cells, heredity, ecosystems, and biological evolution.

Seventh grade students keep records of their observations and use those records to analyze the data they collect. They make and use observations to explain diversity of living organisms and how the organisms are classified, how they reproduce and how genetic information is passed from parents to their offspring. They use different models to represent systems such as cells, tissues, and organs. They use what they know about ecosystems to explain the cycling of matter and energy. They use the concepts of natural selection and fossil evidence in explanations. Seventh graders write instructions, describe observations, and show information in graphical form. When analyzing the data they collect, seventh graders can recognize relationships in simple charts and graphs and find more than one way to interpret their findings. The students replicate investigations and compare results to find similarities and differences.

Inquiry

In each unit of study:  Students will analyze problems by asking questions, making observations, gathering information and defining criteria and constraints.

Life Science 

S7L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to investigate the diversity of living organisms and how they can be compared scientifically. 

a. Develop and defend a model that categorizes organisms based on common characteristics.
b. Evaluate historical models of how organisms were classified based on physical characteristics and how that led to the six kingdom system (currently archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, and animals).
(Clarification statement: This includes common examples and characteristics such as, but not limited to, prokaryotic, eukaryotic, unicellular, multicellular, asexual reproduction, sexual reproduction, autotroph, heterotroph, and unique cell structures. Modern classification will be addressed in high school.)

S7L2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe how cell structures, cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems interact to maintain the basic needs of organisms. 

a. Develop a model and construct an explanation of how cell structures (specifically the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, cell wall, chloroplasts, lysosome, and mitochondria) contribute to the function of the cell as a system in obtaining nutrients in order to grow, reproduce, make needed materials, and process waste.
(Clarification statement: The intent is for students to demonstrate how the component structures of the cell interact and work together to allow the cell as a whole carry out various processes. Additional structures, beyond those listed, will be addressed in high school Biology.)
b. Develop and use a conceptual model of how cells are organized into tissues, tissues into organs, organs into systems, and systems into organisms. c. Construct an argument that systems of the body (Cardiovascular, Excretory, Digestive, Respiratory, Muscular, Nervous, and Immune) interact with one another to carry out life processes.
(Clarification statement: The emphasis is not on learning individual structures and functions associated with each system, but on how systems interact to support life processes.)

S7L3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain how organisms reproduce either sexually or asexually and transfer genetic information to determine the traits of their offspring. 

a. Construct an explanation supported with scientific evidence of the role of genes and chromosomes in the process of inheriting a specific trait.
b. Develop and use a model to describe how asexual reproduction can result in offspring with identical genetic information while sexual reproduction results in genetic variation.
(Clarification statement: Models could include, but are not limited to, the use of monohybrid Punnett squares to demonstrate the heritability of genes and the resulting genetic variation, identification of heterozygous and homozygous, and comparison of genotype vs. phenotype.)
c. Ask questions to gather and synthesize information about the ways humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms through selective breeding.
(Clarification statement: The element specifically addresses artificial selection and the ways in which it is fundamentally different from natural selection.)

S7L4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to examine the interdependence of organisms with one another and their environments. 

a. Construct an explanation for the patterns of interactions observed in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of the ecosystem.
(Clarification statement: The interactions include, but are not limited to, predator-prey relationships, competition, mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism.)
b. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and the flow of energy among biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.
(Clarification statement: Emphasis is on tracing movement of matter and flow of energy, not the biochemical mechanisms of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.)
c. Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for how resource availability, disease, climate, and human activity affect individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems. d. Ask questions to gather and synthesize information from multiple sources to differentiate between Earth’s major terrestrial biomes (i.e., tropical rain forest, savanna, temperate forest, desert, grassland, taiga, and tundra) and aquatic ecosystems (i.e., freshwater, estuaries, and marine).
(Clarification statement: Emphasis is on the factors that influence patterns across biomes such as the climate, availability of food and water, and location.)

S7L5. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information from multiple sources to explain the theory of evolution of living organisms through inherited characteristics. 

a. Use mathematical representations to evaluate explanations of how natural selection leads to changes in specific traits of populations over successive generations.
(Clarification statement: Referencing data should be obtained from multiple sources including, but not limited to, existing research and simulations. Students should be able to calculate means, represent this data in a table or graph, and reference it when explaining the principles of natural selection.)
b. Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variation and environmental factors influence the probability of survival and reproduction of a species.
c. Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, and extinction of organisms and their relationships to modern organisms.
(Clarification statement: Evidence of evolution found in comparisons of current/modern organisms such as homologous structures, DNA, and fetal development will be addressed in high school.)

 

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