Kindergarten Learning

Learning in Cobb - Kindergarten

Learning And Assessing Postcard - Kindergarten


What Do Students Learn In Kindergarten?



The Cobb County School District is committed to providing your child an academic experience that will develop his or her knowledge and skills at every grade level and to ensuring a strong foundation is established for your child to reach his or her greatest potential. Our teaching is aligned with content standards and our teachers bring those standards to life for your child through various strategies designed to meet your child’s learning strengths and needs.

In Cobb County classrooms, students are immersed every day in learning experiences based on exploration, problem-solving, and critical thinking in all content areas, including the core areas of English Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science; and in specialized academic content including Health, Music, Physical Education, Technology, Visual Arts, and World Languages*. Excellence in teaching guides your child’s educational experience from Kindergarten to graduation and into life.

*Programming available varies at local schools 

Students in Kindergarten are excited to learn how to read, write, and communicate on grade level. Students are immersed in letter recognition, phonics, and early reading skills. In addition, students learn to read with purpose and understanding, and participate in group discussions about texts. Listening and writing skills help students communicate thoughts and opinions about books. Early learners enjoy visits to their classroom and school library to explore the world of books. Students work on literacy skills that include expression, grade level phonics, and vocabulary.

Kindergartners are learning the conceptual understanding of numeracy that is foundational for successful mathematics students. Students grow their skills and understanding of breaking down numbers, counting, addition and subtraction. They learn how to describe, compare and compose basic shapes. Students use hands-on resources such as pattern blocks, ten-frames and other manipulatives to conceptually understand the mathematics that they are learning. They apply math concepts to learn about the world around them and how to apply math in their daily lives when problem-solving.

Science in Kindergarten centers on a hands-on, student-centered exploration of our natural world. Earth, Life and Physical Science are studied giving students opportunities to build their understanding of core ideas. Kindergarten students explore the world of plants and expand their knowledge of living organisms. They learn about non-living matter and how to recognize similarities and differences in living and non-living things. Finally, they begin basic exploration of rocks, motion, and matter as they build their early conceptions of the world.

Kindergarten students are part of an active classroom where they explore their responsibilities as citizens and community members. The importance and history of American holidays and symbols is a focus of their learning. Students also use maps to develop a basic understanding of geography. A unit on the economy starts Kindergarten students on a path to understanding how money is used in basic commerce, and in their daily lives.

Young learners enjoy the creative process in the Fine Arts classes, such as Visual Arts and Music. In Art, students begin learning basic art vocabulary and produce art with different subjects and themes. In Music, they perform and demonstrate a basic understanding of pitch and rhythm. In Physical Education, students explore movement, learn to share and take turns. Health class prepares them to be safe; students learn how to compare and contrast accident prevention strategies.

 Daily reading as a family is an enjoyable and important way to grow a love of learning. Create time to read during breakfast or in the evening before bed. Share your own favorite childhood books and talk about why the book is one you still love. Visit your local library and take advantage of school book fairs and literacy events. By sharing what you love about reading and showing them how much it means to you by reading with them, students will see how important literacy is in their lives.


How Do We Assess Students In Kindergarten?



Your child will have a variety of classroom assessments that will aid his or her teacher in knowing how to provide the best possible instruction for your child. These assessments will also help you know how well your child is learning and what extra support may be needed. In addition, your child will participate in some standardized assessments that are used to gauge how well your child is doing in his or her grade level.

In Kindergarten, teachers assess student progress using the Georgia Kindergarten Inventory of Developing Skills (GKIDS 2.0). The  GKIDS 2.0 helps teachers identify strengths and needs of your child; and teachers adjust their instruction so learning is personalized to each student.

All students in grades K-9 participate in the universal screening process for reading and math using a digital inventory. In Kindergarten, the reading inventory measures foundational reading skills, such as letter/word identification, word recognition skills, and phonemic awareness.


Mark the Calendar:
GKIDS Readiness Check: August & September
GKIDS: August, October, January & May
Student Growth Measure (SGM): August & May

Question Types:  Kindergarten assessments include observations, analysis of student work, and direct assessment of skills. Students respond to teacher prompts and multiple-choice questions, called selected-response. Questions are often read aloud so young learners have a better chance of successfully completing all questions. Questions relate to subject areas such as Language Arts and Math and encourage students to apply a broad range of thinking skills.

PARENT TIPS: Assessment

Parents can support students in easing any concern or anxiety about assessment:

  • Talk with your child about any tests or assessments.
  • Explain that assessment is a natural and important part of any learning. Tests help students understand their thinking better and make improvements for better performance in the future.
  • Remind your child to pay attention to the directions and to listen carefully as they are read. Encourage your child to take time to understand the questions before selecting an answer.
  • A good night’s rest is the best way to arrive focused on test day!


Remember that assessment is an important and helpful part of learning for students of all ages. Your support and involvement in your child’s education is critical to success in school and in life. Research shows when parents play a key role in their child’s learning, their child’s achievement excels.


What Instructional Resources Are Used In Kindergarten?



Instructional resources are provided to students and teachers to support teaching and learning. The titles listed below have been recommended to our Board by a committee of teachers, parents and community representatives and approved through the textbook adoption process (See Board Rule IFAA-R). Additional resources to enhance the instruction are constantly added by local schools and individual teachers.


Course/Content Area 



English Language Arts

Scholastic Leveled Bookroom
Ready to Go Classroom Library


English Language Arts

Benchmark Phonics
Benchmark Literacy



My Math, Grade K, Teacher Kit



Georgia Science, Grade K



Science Dimensions


Social Studies

Studies Weekly

Studies Weekly


What Is My Student's Framework For Learning In Kindergarten?

Kindergarten Teaching & Learning Frameworks
English/Language Arts  |  Math  |  Science  |  
Social Studies

What Does The Kindergarten Report Card Look Like?


English – Kindergarten Report Card (Rev. 4/23)

Español – Boleta de Calificaciones Kindergarten (Rev. 4/23)

Portugues –Relatório do jardim de infância (Rev. 4/23)


Learning & Assessing Postcards 

English    |    En Español   |   한국어로   |   Em Português


Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards Logo


Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - English Language Arts




Key Ideas and Details
ELAGSEKRL1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

ELAGSEKRL2 With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.

ELAGSEKRL3 With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

Craft and Structure
ELAGSEKRL4 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.

ELAGSEKRL5 Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems).

ELAGSEKRL6 With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas.
ELAGSEKRL7 With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story (how illustrations support the text).

ELAGSEKRL8 (Not applicable to literature).

ELAGSEKRL9 With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories.

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
ELAGSEKRL10 Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding.


Key Ideas and Details
ELAGSEKRI1 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

ELAGSEKRI2 With prompting and support, identify the main topic (main idea) and retell key details of a text (supporting details).

ELAGSEKRI3 With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.

Craft and Structure
ELAGSEKRI4 With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text.

ELAGSEKRI5 Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.

ELAGSEKRI6 Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text.

Integration of Knowledge and ideas.
ELAGSEKRI7 With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the text (how the illustrations support the text).

ELAGSEKRI8 With prompting and support, identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text.

ELAGSEKRI9 With prompting and support, identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e.g., in illustrations, descriptions, or procedures).

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity.
ELAGSEKRI10 Actively engage in group reading of informational text with purpose and understanding.



Print Concepts
ELAGSEKRF1 Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
a. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page-by-page.
b. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
c. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
d. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.

Phonological Awareness
ELAGSEKRF2 Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
a. Recognize and produce rhyming words.
b. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
c. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
d. Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or CVC) words. (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or/x/.)
e. Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

Phonics and Word Recognition
ELAGSEKRF3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.
a. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one to one letter-sound correspondences for each consonant.
b. Demonstrate basic knowledge of long and short sounds for the given major vowels.
c. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

ELAGSEKRF4 Read common high-frequency words by sight. (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does); read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.


Text Types and Purpose
ELAGSEKW1 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are “writing” about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is…).

ELAGSEKW2 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

ELAGSEKW3 Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened.

Production and Distribution of Writing
ELAGSEKW4 (Begins in grade 3).

ELAGSEKW5 With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

ELAGSEKW6 With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of tools to produce and publish writing, including digital tools in collaboration with peers.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge
ELAGSEKW7 With guidance and support, participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., explore books by a favorite author and express opinions about them).

ELAGSEKW8 With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

ELAGSEKW9 (Begins in grade 4).

Range of Writing
ELAGSEKW10 (Begins in grade 3).


Comprehension and Collaboration
ELAGSEKSL1 Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
b. Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.

ELAGSEKSL2 Confirm understanding of written texts read aloud or information presented orally or through media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood.

ELAGSEKSL3 Ask and answer questions in order to seek help, get information, or clarify something that is not understood.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
ELAGSEKSL4 Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.

ELAGSEKSL5 Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.

ELAGSEKSL6 Speak audibly and express thoughts, feelings, and ideas clearly.


Conventions of Standard English
ELAGSEKL1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Print many upper- and lowercase letters.
b. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs.
c. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes) when speaking.
d. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g., who, what, where, when, why, how).
e. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e.g., to, from, in, out, on, off, for, of, by, with).
f. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities.

ELAGSEKL2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I.
b. Recognize and name end punctuation.
c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and short-vowel sounds (phonemes).
d. Spell simple words phonetically, drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships.

Knowledge of Language
ELAGSEKL3 (begins in grade 2).

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
ELAGSEKL4 With guidance and support, determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
a. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck as a bird and learning the verb to duck).
b. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word.

ELAGSEKL5 With guidance and support, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
a. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.
b. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms).
c. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., note places at school that are colorful).
d. Begin to distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.g., walk, march, strut, prance) by acting out the meanings.

ELAGSEKL6 Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts.


Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Mathematics



Standards for Mathematical Practice 

Mathematical Practices are listed with each grade’s mathematical content standards to reflect the need to connect the mathematical practices to mathematical content in instruction. 

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).

Students are expected to: 

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 

In Kindergarten, students begin to build the understanding that doing mathematics involves solving problems and discussing how they solved them. Students explain to themselves the meaning of a problem and look for ways to solve it. Younger students may use concrete objects or pictures to help them conceptualize and solve problems. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, “Does this make sense?” or they may try another strategy.

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.

Younger students begin to recognize that a number represents a specific quantity. Then, they connect the quantity to written symbols. Quantitative reasoning entails creating a representation of a problem while attending to the meanings of the quantities.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 

Younger students construct arguments using concrete referents, such as objects, pictures, drawings, and actions. They also begin to develop their mathematical communication skills as they participate in mathematical discussions involving questions like “How did you get that?” and “Why is that true?” They explain their thinking to others and respond to others’ thinking.

4. Model with mathematics. 

In early grades, students experiment with representing problem situations in multiple ways including numbers, words (mathematical language),

drawing pictures, using objects, acting out, making a chart or list, creating equations, etc. Students need opportunities to connect the

different representations and explain the connections. They should be able to use all of these representations as needed.

5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 

Younger students begin to consider the available tools (including estimation) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, kindergarteners may decide that it might be advantageous to use linking cubes to represent two quantities and then compare the two representations side-by side.

6. Attend to precision. 

As kindergarteners begin to develop their mathematical communication skills, they try to use clear and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning.

7. Look for and make use of structure. 

Younger students begin to discern a pattern or structure. For instance, students recognize the pattern that exists in the teen numbers; every teen number is written with a 1 (representing one ten) and ends with the digit that is first stated. They also recognize that 3 + 2 = 5 and 2 + 3 = 5.

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. 

In the early grades, students notice repetitive actions in counting and computation, etc. For example, they may notice that the next number in a counting sequence is one more. When counting by tens, the next number in the sequence is “ten more” (or one more group of ten). In addition, students continually check their work by asking themselves, “Does this make sense?”

Counting and Cardinality (K.CC) 

Know number names and the count sequence. 

MGSEK.CC.1 Count to 100 by ones and by tens.

MGSEK.CC.2 Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).

MGSEK.CC.3 Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

Count to tell the number of objects. 

MGSEK.CC.4 Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.
a. When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number
name with one and only one object. (One-to-one correspondence).
b. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted (cardinality). The number of objects is the same regardless of
their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
c. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.


Count to answer ‘how many?” questions.
a. Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a variety of ways (a line, a rectangular array, or a circle), or
as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration.
b. Given a number from 1-20, count out that many objects.
c. Identify and be able to count pennies within 20. (Use pennies as manipulatives in multiple mathematical contexts.)

Compare numbers 

MGSEK.CC.6 Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.

MGSEK.CC.7 Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals. Include groups with up to ten objects.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (K.OA) 

Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from 

MGSEK.OA.1 Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

MGSEK.OA.2 Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

MGSEK.OA.3 Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation. (Drawings need not include an equation).

MGSEK.OA.4 For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.

MGSEK.OA.5 Fluently add and subtract within 5.

Work with numbers 11–19 to gain foundations for place value 

MGSEK.NBT.1 Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones to understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six , seven, eight, or nine ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 18 = 10 + 8).

Measurement and Data (K.MD) 

Describe and compare measurable attributes 

MGSEK.MD.1 Describe several measurable attributes of an object, such as length or weight. For example, a student may describe a shoe as, “This shoe is heavy! It is also really long!”

MGSEK.MD.2 Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.

Classify objects and count the number of objects in each category 

MGSEK.MD.3 Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.

Geometry (K.G) 

Identify and describe shapes (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres) 

MGSEK.G.1 Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.

MGSEK.G.2 Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.

MGSEK.G.3 Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or three-dimensional (“solid”).

Analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes 

MGSEK.G. 4 Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

MGSEK.G. 5 Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

MGSEK.G. 6 Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle


Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Social Studies




In kindergarten, students begin to understand the foundations of the social studies strands: history, geography, government, and economics. Students begin their introduction to United States history through the study of important American holidays and symbols. Basic concepts of cultural and physical geography are presented. Civics provides students with an introduction to rules and character traits of good citizens. Basic economic concepts are also introduced.


The following connecting themes and enduring understandings will feature prominently in the course and help students increase their understanding and retention of knowledge.

1. CULTURE: The student will understand that the culture is how people think, act, celebrate, and make rules, and that it is what makes a group of people special.
2. INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, INSTITUTIONS: The student will understand that what people, groups, and institutions say and do can help or harm others whether they mean to or not.
3. LOCATION: The student will understand that where people live matters.
4. SCARCITY: The student will understand that because people cannot have everything they want, they have to make choices.
5. TIME, CHANGE AND CONTINUITY: The student will understand that that some things will change over time, while other things will stay the same.


The student will be able to locate, analyze, and synthesize information related to social studies topics and apply this information to solve problems and make decisions.

1. Compare similarities and differences
2. Organize items chronologically
3. Identify issues and/or problems and alternative solutions


The student will use maps and globes to retrieve social studies information.

1. Use a compass rose to identify cardinal directions



SSKH1 Identify the purpose national holidays and describe the people and/or events celebrated. 

a. Christmas
b. Columbus Day
c. Independence Day
d. Labor Day
e. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day
f. Memorial Day
g. New Year’s Day
h. Presidents Day (George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, and the current president)
i. Thanksgiving Day
j. Veterans Day

SSKH2 Identify the following American Symbols: 

a. The national and state flags (United States and Georgia flags)
b. Pledge of Allegiance
c. Star Spangled Banner (identify as the national anthem)
d. The bald eagle
e. The Statue of Liberty
f. Lincoln Memorial (identify image and associate with Abraham Lincoln and Presidents Day
g. Washington Monument (identify image and associate with George Washington and Presidents Day)
h. White House (identify image and associate with Presidents Day and the current president)

SSKH3 Correctly use words and phrases related to chronology and time (Note: These elements should be integrated into discussions about historical events and figures). 

a. Now, long ago
b. Before, after
c. Today, tomorrow, yesterday
d. First, last, next
e. Day, week, month, year
f. Past, present, future



SSKG1 Describe the diversity of American culture by explaining the customs and celebrations of various families and communities. 

SSKG2 Explain that a map is a drawing of a place and a globe is a model of the Earth. 

a. Differentiate land and water features on simple maps and globes.
b. Explain that maps and globes show a view from above.
c. Explain that maps and globes show features in a smaller size.

SSKG3 State the street address, city, state, and country in which the student lives.



SSKCG1 Demonstrate an understanding of good citizenship. 

a. Explain how rules are made and why.
b. Explain why rules should be followed.

SSKCG2 Describe examples of positive character traits exhibited by good citizens such as and will honesty, patriotism, courtesy, respect, truth, pride, and self-control. 


SSKE1 Describe the work that people do such as: police officer, fire fighter, soldier, mail carrier, farmer, doctor, teacher etc. 

SSKE2 Explain that people earn income by working. 

SSKE3 Explain how money is used to purchase goods and services. 

a. Distinguish goods from services.
b. Identify that U.S. coins and dollar bills (paper money) are used as currency.

SSKE4 Explain that people must make choices because they cannot have everything they want. 


Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Science



Kindergarten Science Standards

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards (CT & LS) for science are designed to provide foundational knowledge and skills for all students to develop proficiency in science. The Project 2061’s Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the follow up work, A Framework for K-12 Science Education were used as the core of the standards to determine appropriate content and process skills for students. The Science Georgia Standards of Excellence focus on a limited number of core disciplinary ideas and crosscutting concepts which build from Kindergarten to high school. The standards are written with the core knowledge to be mastered integrated with the science and engineering practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design.

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards drive instruction. Hands-on, student-centered, and inquiry-based approaches should be the emphasis of instruction. The standards are a required minimum set of expectations that show proficiency in science. However, instruction can extend beyond these minimum expectations to meet student needs.

Science consists of a way of thinking and investigating, as well a growing body of knowledge about the natural world. To become literate in science, students need to possess sufficient understanding of fundamental science content knowledge, the ability to engage in the science and engineering practices, and to use scientific and technological information correctly. Technology should be infused into the curriculum and the safety of the student should always be foremost in instruction.

The Kindergarten, Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards for science engage students in raising questions about the world around them. Though not developmentally ready for in-depth explanations, kindergarten students wonder why things move and note the various patterns in their movement (e.g., the sun & the moon appear & disappear in the sky). Students learn to use whole numbers to describe scientific data & how to identify parts of things (i.e. tools & toys). Kindergarteners use their senses (sight, smell, taste, touch & sound) to group objects & to make observations about the physical world by describing, comparing, & sorting items according to physical attributes (i.e. number, shape, texture, size, weight, color, & motion). They learn to follow rules to stay safe.


In each unit of study:  Students will define simple problems based-on observations, ask questions, and carry out investigations with guidance.  In order to generate solutions to a problem, students will gather evidence, record information, and use numbers to describe patterns. In order to communicate solutions, student will use data to support their explanations (arguments).  

Earth Science

SKE1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate observations about time patterns (day to night and night to day) and objects (sun, moon, stars) in the day and night sky.

a. Ask questions to classify objects according to those seen in the day sky, the night sky, and both.
b. Develop a model to communicate the changes that occur in the sky during the day, as day turns into night, during the night, and as night turns into day using pictures and words.
(Clarification statement: Students are not expected to understand tilt of the Earth, rotation, or revolution.)

SKE2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe the physical attributes of earth materials (soil, rocks, water, and air). 

a. Ask questions to identify and describe earth materials—soil, rocks, water, and air.
b. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how rocks can be grouped by physical attributes (size, weight, texture, color).
c. Use tools to observe and record physical attributes of soil such as texture and color.

Physical Science

SKP1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to describe objects in terms of the materials they are made of and their physical attributes. 

a. Ask questions to compare and sort objects made of different materials. (Common materials include clay, cloth, plastic, wood, paper, and metal.)
b. Use senses and science tools to classify common objects, such as buttons or swatches of cloth, according to their physical attributes (color, size, shape, weight, and texture). c. Plan and carry out an investigation to predict and observe whether objects, based on their physical attributes, will sink or float

SKP2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to compare and describe different types of motion.

a. Plan and carry out an investigation to determine the relationship between an object’s physical attributes and its resulting motion (straight, circular, back and forth, fast and slow, and motionless)
b. Construct an argument as to the best way to move an object based on its physical attributes.

Life Science

SKL1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how organisms (alive and not alive) and nonliving objects are grouped. 

a. Construct an explanation based on observations to recognize the differences between organisms and nonliving objects.
b. Develop a model to represent how a set of organisms & nonliving objects are sorted into groups based on their attributes.

SKL2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to compare the similarities and differences in groups of organisms. 

a. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how animals can be grouped according to their features.
b. Construct an argument supported by evidence for how plants can be grouped according to their features.
cAsk questions & make observations to identify the similarities & differences of offspring to their parents & to other members of the same species.


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