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6th Grade Learning

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Learning in Cobb - 6th Grade Learning


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What Do Students Learn In 6th Grade?

 

6th GRADE LEARNING :

The Cobb County School District is committed to providing your child an academic experience that will develop his or her knowledge and skills at every grade level and to ensuring a strong foundation is established for your child to reach his or her greatest potential. Our teaching is aligned with content standards and our teachers bring those standards to life for your child through various strategies designed to meet your child’s learning strengths and needs.

In Cobb County classrooms, students are immersed every day in learning experiences based on exploration, problem-solving, and critical thinking in all content areas, including the core areas of English Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science; and in specialized academic content including Health, Music, Physical Education, Technology, Visual Arts, and World Languages*. Excellence in teaching guides your child’s educational experience from Kindergarten to graduation and into life.

* Programming available varies at local schools

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS:
Sixth grade students read both informational and literary texts. Through close reading and analysis, students determine the meaning and purpose of a variety of texts. Students read multiple texts centered around a common theme or idea and make connections among these texts. Students respond to the texts they read through speaking and writing. They write and use evidence from multiple texts or sources to inform, explain, or make an argument. Students support their claims using clear and relevant evidence to convey ideas and information. Sixth grade students engage in rich and rigorous discussion about texts and communicate using multiple media formats in group and individual presentations.

MATHEMATICS:
Sixth grade students will learn foundational algebraic, geometric, and statistical concepts. Students use variables extensively with expressions, equations and formulas, and develop the understanding of dependent and independent variables for graphing. Mathematics practices of perseverance, reasoning, justifying, modeling, using appropriate tools, attending to precision, looking for and using patterns are strongly applied in sixth grade. Geometric concepts of area, volume, and surface areas are related to real-world problem solving. Students apply measures of center and measures of variability for the first time during sixth grade.

SCIENCE:
In Earth Science, sixth graders begin a more in-depth and scientific study of the Earth and outer space. Students explore the nature of rocks and minerals and how they relate to the processes of weathering and erosion. Students examine the physical make-up of the Earth and dynamic processes such as plate tectonics that drive changes on the Earth. Students then apply new knowledge as they explore how the water cycle, climate, and weather impact our planet. A hands-on, investigative approach builds understanding of key ideas and scientific practices.

SOCIAL STUDIES:
The first year of a two-year course called World Area Studies begins in sixth grade. The world becomes the classroom as students explore Latin America, Canada, Europe, and Australia. Emphasis is on government, economics, geography, and history. Students become keen consumers and communicators of information. Through study of map skills, students apply contextual knowledge to understanding the world around them. Exploring financial management and the economy, 6th graders discuss how finance and other characteristics of government have an impact on society.

CONNECTIONS:
Schools offer varying Connections classes for middle school students. Connections can include, but are not limited to, Health, Physical Education, Visual Arts, Chorus, Band, Orchestra, Career Tech, and Foreign Language. The purpose of Connections is to provide broad and rich exposure to areas that nurture student interest, talent, skills, and life-long appreciation.


PARENTS TIPS: Reading
 Daily reading as a family is an enjoyable and important way to grow a love or learning. Books are now available for download to electronic and digital devices and can easily be shared for family enjoyment. Students love to self-select books on topics and subjects they enjoy such as graphic novels, informational (nonfiction) texts, magazines, and online books. Talk with your child about their reading choices and encourage discussion about the book’s themes, lessons, ideas, or have them read to you.

Revised 10.16.19
 

How Do We Assess Students In 6th Grade?

 

6th GRADE ASSESSMENT:

Your child will have a variety of classroom assessments that will aid his or her teacher in knowing how to provide the best possible instruction for your child. Also, these assessments will help you know how well your child is learning and what extra support may be needed. In addition, your child will participate in standardized assessments that are used to gauge how well your child is doing, based upon his or her grade level expectations.

The State of Georgia requires that students in grades 6-8 participate in the annual administration of state assessments. The state assessment is called the Georgia Milestones Assessment System. Students, in grade 6 will take an End of Grade (EOG) assessment as part of the Georgia Milestones. The EOG will include multiple choice, short answer, and technology-enhanced questions. The language arts EOG has a third section, which focuses on writing.

All students in grades K-9 participate in the universal screening process for reading and math using a digital inventory. Your sixth grader’s proficiency and progress in reading and math will be measured three times a year using the reading inventory and math inventory online.

TESTING IN 6th GRADE:

Mark the Calendar:    6th grade End of Grade (EOG) Assessment: April-May

Question Types:  Students respond to multiple-choice questions, called selected-response. Also, they write short answers to grade-appropriate questions. Higher-order thinking skills are employed at all levels of testing. Performance-based assessments and assignments give hands-on opportunities to express learning at different rates and levels


PARENT TIPS: Assessment
Parents can support students in easing any concern or anxiety about assessment:

  • Talk with your child about any tests or assessments.
  • Explain that assessment is a natural and important part of any learning. Tests help students understand their thinking better and make improvements for better performance in the future.
  • Remind your child to pay attention to the directions and to listen carefully as they are read. Encourage your child to take time to understand the questions before selecting an answer.
  • A good night’s rest is the best way to arrive focused on test day!

Remember that assessment is an important and helpful part of learning for students of all ages. Your support and involvement in your child’s education is critical to success in school and in life. Research shows when parents play a key role in their child’s learning, their child’s achievement excels.

Revised 10.16.19
 

What Instructional Resources Are Used In 6th Grade?

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD A LIST OF BOARD APPROVED INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES FOR SIXTH GRADE
CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD A LIST OF BOARD APPROVED CTAE INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL

Instructional resources are provided to students and teachers to support teaching and learning. The titles listed below have been recommended to our Board by a committee of teachers, parents and community representatives and approved through the textbook adoption process (See Board Rule IFAA-R). Additional resources to enhance the instruction are constantly added by local schools and individual teachers.

 

Course/Content Area 

Resource 

Publisher 

English Language Arts

SpringBoard

CollegeBoard

Mathematics

Glencoe GA Math
6 Plus, Grade 6

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Science

GA Science & Technology Earth Science

HMH

Science

Science Dimensions

HMH

Social Studies

Clairmont World Studies

Clairmont World Studies

 

What Is My Student's Framework For Learning In 6th Grade?

 

Sixth Grade Teaching & Learning Frameworks
English/Language Arts  |  Math  |  Science |  Social Studies

 

Learning & Assessing Postcards 


English    |    En Español   |    한국어로    |    Em Português


 

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Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - English Language Arts

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 6th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR ELA

READING LITERARY – RL

Key Ideas and Details 

ELAGSE6RL1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

ELAGSE6RL2 Determine a theme and/or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. 

ELAGSE6RL3 Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves towards a resolution. 

Craft and Structure 

ELAGSE6RL4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. 

ELAGSE6RL5 Analyze how a particular sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot. 

ELAGSE6RL6 Explain how an author develops the point of view of the narrator or speaker in a text. 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 

ELAGSE6RL7 Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story, drama, or poem to listening to or viewing an audio, video, or live version of the text, including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch. 

ELAGSE6RL8 (Not applicable to literature). 

ELAGSE6RL9 Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

ELAGSE6RL10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 


READING INFORMATIONAL – RI

Key Ideas and Details 

ELAGSE6RI1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

ELAGSE6RI2 Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. 

ELAGSE6RI3 Analyze in detail how a key individual, event, or idea is introduced, illustrated, and elaborated in a text (e.g., through examples or anecdotes). 

Craft and Structure 

ELAGSE6RI4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings. 

ELAGSE6RI5 Analyze how a particular sentence, paragraph, chapter, or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas. 

ELAGSE6RI6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and explain how it is conveyed in the text. 

Integration of Knowledge and ideas 

ELAGSE6RI7 Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. 

ELAGSE6RI8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. 

ELAGSE6RI9 Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e.g., a memoir written by and a biography on the same person). 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

ELAGSE6RI10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 

Text Types and Purpose 

ELAGSE6W1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

ELAGSE6W2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

a. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.

ELAGSE6W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

WRITING – W 

Text Types and Purpose 

ELAGSE6W1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

a. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly.
b. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence, using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented.

ELAGSE6W2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

a. Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented.

ELAGSE6W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another.
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to convey experiences and events.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing

ELAGSE6W4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1–3 above.)

ELAGSE6W5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language Standards 1–3 up to and including grade 6.)

ELAGSE6W6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

ELAGSE6W7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question, drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.

ELAGSE6W8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources.

ELAGSE6W9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

a. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g., “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e.g., stories and poems; historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”).
b. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).

Range of Writing

ELAGSE6W10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING – SL

Comprehension and Collaboration 

ELAGSE6SL1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
b. Follow rules for collegial discussions, set specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
c. Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic, text, or issue under discussion.
d. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing.

ELAGSE6SL2 Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic, text, or issue under study. 

ELAGSE6SL3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. 

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 

ELAGSE6SL4 Present claims and findings, sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions, facts, and details to accentuate main ideas or themes; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 

ELAGSE6SL5 Include multimedia components (e.g., graphics, images, music, sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information. 

ELAGSE6SL6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 6 Language Standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.) 

LANGUAGE – L 

Conventions of Standard English 

ELAGSE6L1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective, objective, possessive).
b. Use intensive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
c. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.
d. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.e., ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).
e. Recognize variations from Standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking, and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.

ELAGSE6L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use punctuation (commas, parentheses, dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.
b. Spell correctly.

Knowledge of Language 

ELAGSE6L3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a. Vary sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style.
b. Maintain consistency in style and tone.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 

ELAGSE6L4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., audience, auditory, audible).
c. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELAGSE6L5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g., personification) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., cause/effect, part/whole, item/category) to better understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., stingy, scrimping, economical, unwasteful, thrifty).

ELAGSE6L6 Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. 

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Mathematics

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 6th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR MATH

Standards for Mathematical Practice 

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 

In grade 6, students solve problems involving ratios and rates and discuss how they solved them. Students solve real world problems through the application of algebraic and geometric concepts. Students seek the meaning of a problem and look for efficient ways to represent and solve it. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, “What is the most efficient way to solve the problem?”, “Does this make sense?”, and “Can I solve the problem in a different way?”

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 

In grade 6, students represent a wide variety of real world contexts through the use of real numbers and variables in mathematical expressions, equations, and inequalities. Students contextualize to understand the meaning of the number or variable as related to the problem and decontextualize to manipulate symbolic representations by applying properties of operations.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 

In grade 6, students construct arguments using verbal or written explanations accompanied by expressions, equations, inequalities, models, and graphs, tables, and other data displays (i.e. box plots, dot plots, histograms, etc.). They further refine their mathematical communication skills through mathematical discussions in which they critically evaluate their own thinking and the thinking of other students. They pose questions like “How did you get that?”, “Why is that true?” “Does that always work?” They explain their thinking to others and respond to others’ thinking.

4. Model with mathematics. 

In grade 6, students model problem situations symbolically, graphically, tabularly, and contextually. Students form expressions, equations, or inequalities from real world contexts and connect symbolic and graphical representations. Students begin to explore covariance and represent two quantities simultaneously. Students use number lines to compare numbers and represent inequalities. They use measures of center and variability and data displays (i.e. box plots and histograms) to draw inferences about and make comparisons between data sets. Students need many opportunities to connect and explain the connections between the different representations. They should be able to use all of these representations as appropriate to a problem context.

5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 

Students consider available tools (including estimation and technology) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, students in grade 6 may decide to represent similar data sets using dot plots with the same scale to visually compare the center and variability of the data. Additionally, students might use physical objects or applets to construct nets and calculate the surface area of three-dimensional figures.

6. Attend to precision. 

In grade 6, students continue to refine their mathematical communication skills by using clear and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. Students use appropriate terminology when referring to rates, ratios, geometric figures, data displays, and components of expressions, equations or inequalities.

7. Look for and make use of structure. 

Students routinely seek patterns or structures to model and solve problems. For instance, students recognize patterns that exist in ratio tables recognizing both the additive and multiplicative properties. Students apply properties to generate equivalent expressions

(i.e. 6 + 2= 3 (2 + x) by distributive property) and solve equations (i.e. 2+ 3 = 15, 2= 12 by subtraction property of equality), c=6 by division property of equality). Students compose and decompose two- and three-dimensional figures to solve real world problems involving area and volume.

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. 

In grade 6, students use repeated reasoning to understand algorithms and make generalizations about patterns. During multiple opportunities to solve and model problems, they may notice that a/b ÷ c/d = ad/bc and construct other examples and models that confirm their generalization. Students connect place value and their prior work with operations to understand algorithms to fluently divide multi-digit numbers and perform all operations with multi-digit decimals. Students informally begin to make connections between covariance, rates, and representations showing the relationships between quantities.

Ratios and Proportional Relationships (6.RP) 

Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. 

MGSE6.RP.1 Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, “The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because for every 2 wings there was 1 beak.” “For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes.” 

MGSE6.RP.2 Understand the concept of a unit rate a / b associated with a ratio a: b with b ≠ 0 (b not equal to zero), and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, “This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar.” “We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger.” 

MGSE6.RP.3 Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems utilizing strategies such as tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams (bar models), double number line diagrams, and/or equations.

a. Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole‐number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.
b. Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, If it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed?
c. Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g. 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); given a percent, solve problems involving finding the whole given a part and the part given the whole.
d. Given a conversion factor, use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units within one system of measurement and between two systems of measurements (customary and metric); manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities.

For example, given 1 in. = 2.54 cm, how many centimeters are in 6 inches? 

The Number System (6.NS) 

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions. 

MGSE6.NS.1 Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, including reasoning strategies such as using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

For example: 

Create a story context for (2/3)÷(3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient;
Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3)÷(3/4)=8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (/)÷(/)=/.)
How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally?
How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt?
How wide is a rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi? 

Compute fluently with multi‐digit numbers and find common factors and multiples. 

MGSE6.NS.2 Fluently divide multi‐digit numbers using the standard algorithm.

MGSE6.NS.3 Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi‐digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.

MGSE6.NS.4 Find the common multiples of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12 and the common factors of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100.

a. Find the greatest common factor of 2 whole numbers and use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers 1-100 with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factors. (GCF) Example: 36 + 8 = 4(9 + 2)
b. Apply the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12 to solve real-world problems.

Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers. 

MGSE6.NS.5 Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, debits/credits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real‐world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.

MGSE6.NS.6 Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates.

a. Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., –(–3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite.
b. Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes.
c. Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane.

MGSE6.NS.7 Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers.

a. Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram. For example, interpret – 3 > – 7 as a statement that –3 is located to the right of –7 on a number line oriented from left to right.
b. Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real‐world contexts. For example, write –3°C > –7°C to express the fact that –3°C is warmer than –7°C.
c. Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real‐world situation. For example, for an account balance of –30 dollars, write |–30| = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars.
d. Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize that an account balance less than –30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars 

MGSE6.NS.8 Solve real‐world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate.

Expressions and Equations (6.EE) 

Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions. 

MGSE6.EE.1 Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents.

MGSE6.EE.2 Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.

a. Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract y from 5” as 5–.
b. Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, co-efficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2(8+7) as a product of two factors; view (8+7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms.
c. Evaluate expressions at specific values for their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole-number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas =3 and =62 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length =1/2

MGSE6.EE.3 Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3(2+) to produce the equivalent expression 6+3; apply the distributive property to the expression 24+18 to produce the equivalent expression 6(4+3); apply properties of operations to ++ to produce the equivalent expression 3

MGSE6.EE.4 Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions ++ and 3 are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number stands for. 

Reason about and solve onevariable equations and inequalities. 

MGSE6.EE.5 Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true

MGSE6.EE.6 Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set.

MGSE6.EE.7 Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form += and = for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers

MGSE6.EE.8 Write an inequality of the form > or < to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form > or < have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams.

Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables. 

MGSE6.EE.9 Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another.

a. Write an equation to express one quantity, the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, the independent variable.
b. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distance and times, and write the equation d= 65 to represent the relationship between distance and time. 

Geometry (6.G) 

Solve real‐world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume. 

MGSE6.G.1 Find area of right triangles, other triangles, quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

MGSE6.G.2 Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths (1/2 u), and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = (length) x (width) x (height) and V= (area of base) x (height) to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

MGSE6.G.3 Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems.

MGSE6.G.4 Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. 

Statistics and Probability (6.SP) 

Develop understanding of statistical variability. 

MGSE6.SP.1 Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, “How old am I?” is not a statistical question, but “How old are the students in my school?” is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students’ ages. 

MGSE6.SP.2 Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape.

MGSE6.SP.3 Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number.

Summarize and describe distributions. 

MGSE6.SP.4 Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots.

MGSE6.SP.5 Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by:

a. Reporting the number of observations.
b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement.
c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range).
d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data was gathered

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Social Studies

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 6th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES

LATIN AMERICA, the CARIBBEAN and CANADA, EUROPE, and AUSTRALIA

Sixth grade is the first year of a two-year World Area Studies course. Sixth grade students study Latin America, Canada, Europe, and Australia. The goal of this two-year course is to acquaint middle school students with the world in which they live. The geography domain includes both physical and human geography. The intent of the geography domain is for students to begin to grasp the importance geography plays in their everyday lives. The government/civics domain focuses on selected types of government found in the various areas so that students begin to understand the variety of governments in the world. The economics domain builds on the K-5 economics standards; however, the focus shifts from the United States to how other countries answer the basic questions of economics. The history domain focuses on major events in each region during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

CONNECTING THEMES AND ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS 

The following connecting themes and enduring understandings will feature prominently in the course and help students increase their understanding and retention of knowledge.

1. CONFLICT AND CHANGE: The student will understand that when there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result.

2. CULTURE: The student will understand that the culture of a society is the product of the religion, beliefs, customs, traditions, and government of that society.

3. GOVERNANCE: The student will understand that as a society increases in complexity and interacts with other societies, the complexity of the government also increases.

4. HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL INTERACTION: The student will understand that humans, their society, and the environment affect each other.

5. LOCATION: The student will understand that location affects a society’s economy, culture, and development.

6. MOVEMENT/MIGRATION: The student will understand that the movement or migration of people and ideas affects all societies.

7. PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTION: The student will understand that the production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the society are affected by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.

8. TIME, CHANGE, AND CONTINUITY: The student will understand that while change occurs over time, there is continuity to the basic structure of that society.

INFORMATION PROCESSING SKILLS

The student will be able to locate, analyze, and synthesize information related to social studies topics and apply this information to solve problems and make decisions.

1. Compare similarities and differences
2. Organize items chronologically
3. Identify issues and/or problems and alternative solutions
4. Distinguish between fact and opinion
5. Identify main idea, detail, sequence of events, and cause and effect in a social studies context
6. Identify and use primary and secondary sources
7. Interpret timelines
8. Identify social studies reference resources to use for a specific purpose
9. Construct charts and tables
10. Analyze artifacts
11. Draw conclusions and make generalizations
12. Analyze graphs and diagrams
13. Translate dates into centuries, eras, or ages
14. Formulate appropriate research questions
15. Determine adequacy and/or relevancy of information
16. Check for consistency of information
17. Interpret political cartoons

MAP AND GLOBE SKILLS 

The student will use maps and globes to retrieve social studies information.

1. Use a compass rose to identify cardinal directions
2. Use intermediate directions
3. Use a letter/number grid system to determine location
4. Compare and contrast the categories of natural, cultural, and political features found on maps
5. Use graphic scales to determine distances on a map
6. Use map key/legend to acquire information from historical, physical political, resource, product and economic maps
7. Use a map to explain impact of geography on historical and current events
8. Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on information from maps
9. Use latitude and longitude to determine location
10. Compare maps of the same place at different points in time and from different perspectives to determine changes, identify trends, and generalize about human activities
11. Compare maps with data sets (charts, tables, graphs) and/or readings to draw conclusions and make generalizations

HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGS – Latin America and Canada 

SS6H1 Explain conflict and change in Latin America.

a. Describe the influence of African slavery on the development of the Americas.
b. Describe the influence of the Spanish and the Portuguese on the language and religions of Latin America.
c. Explain the impact of the Cuban Revolution and describe the current relationship between Cuba and the United States.
d. Explain the impact of poverty, the war on drugs, and migration to the United States on Latin America.

SS6H2 Describe Quebec’s independence movement. 

GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Latin America and Canada

SS6G1 Locate selected features of Latin America.

a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: Amazon River, Amazon Rainforest, Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Panama Canal, Andes Mountains, Sierra Madre Mountains, and Atacama Desert.
b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, and Panama.

SS6G2 Explain the impact of environmental issues in Latin America. 

a. Explain the causes and effects of air pollution in Mexico City, Mexico.
b. Explain the environmental issue of destruction of the rain forest in Brazil.

SS6G3 Explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Latin America. 

a. Explain how the location, climate, and distribution of natural resources impact trade and affect where people live in Mexico, Brazil, and Cuba.

SS6G4 Locate selected features of Canada. 

a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the St. Lawrence River, Hudson Bay, Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, the Great Lakes, Canadian Shield, and Rocky Mountains.
b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map Canada and the province of Quebec.

SS6G5 Explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Canada. 

a. Describe how Canada’s location, climate, and natural resources impact trade and affect where people live.

SS6G6 Explain the impact of environmental issues in Canada. 

a. Explain the causes and effects of pollution and acid rain in Canada to include the Great Lakes.
b. Explain the causes and effects of the extraction of natural resources on the Canadian Shield (e.g., mining and logging).

GOVERNMENT/CIVIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Latin America & Canada

SS6CG1 Compare and contrast various forms of government. 

a. Explain citizen participation in autocratic, and democratic governments. [i.e. the role of citizens in choosing the leaders of Mexico (presidential democracy), Cuba (autocratic), and Brazil (presidential democracy)].
b. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.

SS6CG2 Explain citizen participation in the Canadian government. 

a. Explain the role of citizens in choosing the leader of Canada (parliamentary democracy).

ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Latin America & Canada

SS6E1 Analyze different economic systems. 

a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain that countries have a mixed economic system located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.
c. Compare and contrast the basic types of economic systems found in Mexico, Cuba, and Brazil.

SS6E2 Give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Latin America. 

a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargos.
c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.
d. Explain the functions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

SS6E3 Describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Brazil, Cuba, and Mexico. 

a. Evaluate how literacy rates affect the standard of living.
b. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
c. Explain the relationship between investment in capital goods (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
d. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.
e. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

SS6E4 Analyze different economic systems. 

a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain that countries have a mixed economic system located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.
c. Describe the economic system of Canada.

SS6E5 Give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Canada. 

a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargoes.
c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.
d. Explain the functions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

SS6E6 Describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Canada. 

a. Evaluate how literacy rates affect the standard of living.
b. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
c. Explain the relationship between investment in capital goods (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
d. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.
e. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGS – Europe

SS6H3 Explain conflict and change in Europe. 

a. Describe the aftermath of World War I: the rise of communism, the Treaty of Versailles, the rise of Nazism, and worldwide depression.
b. Explain the rise of Nazism including preexisting prejudices, the use of propaganda, and events which resulted in the Holocaust.
c. Explain how German reunification contributed to the collapse of the Soviet Union and led to the end of the Cold War.

GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Europe

SS6G7 Locate selected features of Europe. 

a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the Danube River, Rhine River, English Channel, Mediterranean Sea, European Plain, the Alps, Pyrenees, Ural Mountains, and Iberian Peninsula.
b. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map the countries of France, Germany, Italy, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, and United Kingdom.

SS6G8 Explain environmental issues in Europe. 

a. Explain the causes and effects of acid rain in Germany.
b. Explain the causes and effects of air pollution in the United Kingdom.
c. Explain the causes and effects of the nuclear disaster in Chernobyl, Ukraine.

SS6G9 Explain the impact of location, climate, natural resources, and population distribution on Europe. 

a. Compare how the location, climate, and natural resources of Germany, the United Kingdom and Russia impact trade and affect where people live.

SS6G10 Describe selected cultural characteristics of Europe. 

a. Describe the diversity of languages spoken within Europe.
b. Identify the major religions in Europe: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

GOVERNMENT/CIVIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Europe

SS6CG3 Compare and contrast various forms of government. 

a. Explain citizen participation in autocratic and democratic governments. [i.e., role of citizens in choosing the leaders of the United Kingdom (parliamentary democracy), Germany (parliamentary democracy), and Russia (presidential democracy)].
b. Describe the two predominant forms of democratic governments: parliamentary and presidential.

ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Europe

SS6E7 Analyze different economic systems. 

a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain that countries have a mixed economic system located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.
c. Compare the basic types of economic systems found in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Russia.

SS6E8 Analyze the benefits of and barriers to voluntary trade in Europe. 

a. Explain how specialization encourages trade between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers such as tariffs, quotas, and embargoes.
c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currencies between nations.
d. Describe the purpose of the European Union and the relationship between member nations.

SS6E9 Describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in the United Kingdom, Germany, and Russia. 

a. Evaluate how literacy rates affect the standard of living.
b. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital goods (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
c. Explain the relationship between investment in capital (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
d. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.
e. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGS – Australia

SS6H4 Explain the impact of English colonization on current Aboriginal basic rights, health, literacy, and language. 

GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Australia

SS6G11 Locate selected features of Australia. 

a. Locate on a world and regional political-physical map: the Great Barrier Reef, Coral Sea, Uluru/Ayers Rock, Indian and Pacific Oceans, Great Dividing Range, and Great Victoria Desert.

SS6G12 Explain the impact of location, climate, distribution of natural resources, and population distribution on Australia. 

a. Describe how Australia’s location, climate, and natural resources impact trade and affect where people live.

GOVERNMENT/CIVIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Australia

SS6CG4 Explain forms of citizen participation in government. 

a. Explain citizen participation in democratic governments [i.e. the role of citizens in choosing the leaders of Australia (parliamentary democracy)].

ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDINGS – Australia

SS6E10 Analyze different economic systems. 

a. Compare how traditional, command, and market economies answer the economic questions of 1-what to produce, 2-how to produce, and 3-for whom to produce.
b. Explain that countries have a mixed economic system located on a continuum between pure market and pure command.
c. Describe the economic system used in Australia.

SS6E11 Give examples of how voluntary trade benefits buyers and sellers in Australia. 

a. Explain how specialization makes trade possible between countries.
b. Compare and contrast different types of trade barriers, such as tariffs, quotas, and embargoes.
c. Explain why international trade requires a system for exchanging currency between nations.

SS6E12 Describe factors that influence economic growth and examine their presence or absence in Australia. 

a. Evaluate how literacy rates affect the standard of living.
b. Explain the relationship between investment in human capital (education and training) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
c. Explain the relationship between investment in capital goods (factories, machinery, and technology) and gross domestic product (GDP per capita).
d. Describe the role of natural resources in a country’s economy.
e. Describe the role of entrepreneurship.

SS6E13 Understand that a basic principle of effective personal money management is to live within one’s income. 

a. Understand that income is received from work and is limited.
b. Understand that a budget is a tool to plan the spending and saving of income.
c. Understand the reasons and benefits of saving.
d. Understand the uses and costs of credit.

READING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES (RHSS) GRADES 6-8 

Key Ideas and Details 

L6-8RHSS1: Cite specific textural evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. 

L6-8RHSS2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. 

L6-8RHSS3: Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered). 

Craft and Structure 

L6-8RHSS4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. 

L6-8RHSS5: Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally). 

L6-8RHSS6: Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 

L6-8RHSS7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. 

L6-8RHSS8: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. 

L6-8RHSS9: Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

L6-8RHSS10: By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 

WRITING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS GRADES 6-8 (WHST) GRADES 6-8 

Text Types and Purposes 

L6-8WHST1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content 

a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

L6-8WHST2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes. 

a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

L6-8WHST3: (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement) 

Production and Distribution of Writing 

L6-8WHST4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience 

L6-8WHST5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writings as needed by planning, revision, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. 

L6-8WHST6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently. 

Research to Build and Present Knowledge 

L6-8WHST7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 

L6-8WHST8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 

L6-8WHST9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. 

Range of Writing 

L6-8WHST10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. 

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Science

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 6th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR EARTH SCIENCE

6th Grade Earth Science Standards 

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards (CT & LS) for science are designed to provide foundational knowledge and skills for all students to develop proficiency in science. The Project 2061’s Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the follow up work, A Framework for K-12 Science Education were used as the core of the standards to determine appropriate content and process skills for students. The Science Georgia Standards of Excellence focus on a limited number of core disciplinary ideas and crosscutting concepts which build from Kindergarten to high school. The standards are written with the core knowledge to be mastered integrated with the science and engineering practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design.

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards drive instruction. Hands-on, student-centered, and inquiry-based approaches should be the emphasis of instruction. The standards are a required minimum set of expectations that show proficiency in science. However, instruction can extend beyond these minimum expectations to meet student needs. At the same time, these standards set a maximum expectation on what will be assessed by the Georgia Milestones Assessment System.

Science consists of a way of thinking and investigating, as well a growing body of knowledge about the natural world. To become literate in science, students need to possess sufficient understanding of fundamental science content knowledge, the ability to engage in the science and engineering practices, and to use scientific and technological information correctly. Technology should be infused into the curriculum and the safety of the student should always be foremost in instruction.

Sixth grade students use records they keep and analyze the data they collect, plan and carry out investigations, describe observations, and show information in different forms. They are able to recognize relationships in simple charts and graphs and find more than one way to interpret their findings. They replicate investigations and compare results to find similarities and differences. Sixth graders study weather patterns and systems by observing and explaining how an aspect of weather can affect a weather system. They are able to construct explanations based on evidence of the role of water in Earth processes, recognize how the presence of land and water in combination with the energy from the sun affect the climate and weather of a region. They use different models to represent systems such as the solar system and the sun/moon/Earth system. They study uses and conservation of Earth’s natural resources and use what they observe about the Earth’s materials to infer the processes and timelines that formed them.

Inquiry

In each unit of study:  Students will analyze problems by asking questions, making observations, gathering information and defining criteria and constraints.

Earth and Space Science 

S6E1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about current scientific views of the universe and how those views evolved. 

a. Ask questions to determine changes in models of Earth’s position in the solar system, and origins of the universe as evidence that scientific theories change with the addition of new information.
(Clarification statement: Students should consider Earth’s position in geocentric and heliocentric models and the Big Bang as it describes the formation of the universe.)
b. Develop a model to represent the position of the solar system in the Milky Way galaxy and in the known universe.
c. Analyze and interpret data to compare and contrast the planets in our solar system in terms of:

  • size relative to Earth,
  • surface and atmospheric features,
  • relative distance from the sun, and
  • ability to support life.

d. Develop and use a model to explain the interaction of gravity and inertia that governs the motion of objects in the solar system.
e. Ask questions to compare and contrast the characteristics, composition, and location of comets, asteroids, and meteoroids.

S6E2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the effects of the relative positions of the sun, Earth, and moon. 

a. Develop and use a model to demonstrate the phases of the moon by showing the relative positions of the sun, Earth, and moon.
b. Construct an explanation of the alignment of the sun, Earth, and moon during solar and lunar eclipses.
c. Analyze and interpret data to relate the tilt of the Earth to the distribution of sunlight throughout the year and its effect on seasons.

S6E3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to recognize the significant role of water in Earth processes. 

a. Ask questions to determine where water is located on Earth’s surface (oceans, rivers, lakes, swamps, groundwater, aquifers, and ice) and communicate the relative proportion of water at each location.
b. Plan and carry out an investigation to illustrate the role of the sun’s energy in atmospheric conditions that lead to the cycling of water.
(Clarification statement: The water cycle should include evaporation, condensation, precipitation, transpiration, infiltration, groundwater, and runoff.)
c. Ask questions to identify and communicate, using graphs and maps, the composition, location, and subsurface topography of the world’s oceans.
d. Analyze and interpret data to create graphic representations of the causes and effects of waves, currents, and tides in Earth’s systems.

S6E4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how the sun, land, and water affect climate and weather. 

a. Analyze and interpret data to compare and contrast the composition of Earth’s atmospheric layers (including the ozone layer) and greenhouse gases.
(Clarification statement: Earth’s atmospheric layers include the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.)
b. Plan and carry out an investigation to demonstrate how energy from the sun transfers heat to air, land and water at different rates.
(Clarification statement: Heat transfer should include the processes of conduction, convection, and radiation.)
c. Develop a model demonstrating the interaction between unequal heating and the rotation of the Earth that causes local and global wind systems.
d. Construct an explanation of the relationship between air pressure, fronts, and air masses and meteorological events such as tornados
and thunderstorms.
e. Analyze and interpret weather data to explain the effects of moisture evaporating from the ocean on weather patterns and weather events such as hurricanes.

S6E5. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to show how Earth’s surface is formed. 

a. Ask questions to compare and contrast the Earth’s crust, mantle, inner and outer core, including temperature, density, thickness, and composition.
b. Plan and carry out an investigation of the characteristics of minerals and how minerals contribute to rock composition.
c. Construct an explanation of how to classify rocks by their formation and how rocks change through geologic processes in the rock cycle.
d. Ask questions to identify types of weathering, agents of erosion and transportation, and environments of deposition.
(Clarification statement: Environments of deposition include deltas, barrier islands, beaches, marshes, and rivers.)
e. Develop a model to demonstrate how natural processes (weathering, erosion, and deposition) and human activity change rocks and the surface of the Earth.
f. Construct an explanation of how the movement of lithospheric plates, called plate tectonics, can cause major geologic events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
(Clarification statement: Include convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries.)
g. Construct an argument using maps and data collected to support a claim of how fossils show evidence of the changing surface and climate of the Earth.
h. Plan and carry out an investigation to provide evidence that soil is composed of layers of weathered rocks and decomposed organic material.

S6E6. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the uses and conservation of various natural resources and how they impact the Earth. 

a. Ask questions to determine the differences between renewable/sustainable energy resources (examples: hydro, solar, wind, geothermal, tidal, biomass) and nonrenewable energy resources (examples: nuclear: uranium, fossil fuels: oil, coal, and natural gas), and how they are used in our everyday lives.
b. Design and evaluate solutions for sustaining the quality and supply of natural resources such as water, soil, and air.
c. Construct an argument evaluating contributions to the rise in global temperatures over the past century.
(Clarification statement: Tables, graphs, and maps of global and regional temperatures, and atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane, should be used as sources of evidence.)

 

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