2nd Grade Learning


Learning in Cobb - 2nd Grade Learning

Learning And Assessing Postcard - 2nd Grade


What Do Students Learn In 2nd Grade?



The Cobb County School District is committed to providing your child an academic experience that will develop his or her knowledge and skills at every grade-level and to ensuring a strong foundation is established for your child to reach his or her greatest potential. Our teaching is aligned with content standards and our teachers bring those standards to life for your child through various strategies designed to meet your child’s learning strengths and needs.

In Cobb County classrooms, students are immersed every day in learning experiences based on exploration, problem-solving, and critical thinking in all content areas, including the core areas of English Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science; and in specialized academic content including Health, Music, Physical Education, Technology, Visual Arts, and World Languages*. Excellence in teaching guides your child’s educational experience from Kindergarten to graduation and into life.

*Programming available varies at local schools 

Second grade students are immersed in reading, writing, listening, and speaking throughout their day. Student success in English Language Arts in second grade involves fluency, accuracy, and reading to understand. Students enjoy a classroom with balanced literacy experiences such as small-group and guided reading, shared writing, reading aloud, listening and speaking. Students read a variety of fiction and nonfiction texts. Emphasis is on communicating through speaking, listening, and writing. Students use sounds, syllables, and phonics to decode words. Close listening and peer conferencing engage students in learning.

Second grade students continue their learning with addition and subtraction for mathematical fluency, measurement with length and time, as well as developing the concept of multiplication. They focus on practices that deepen their conceptual understanding of number sense and characteristics of plane and solid figures. Resources such as money, rulers and base ten blocks support the learning of the standards to model real-world math experiences. Critical thinking about computation and problem-solving helps 2nd graders deepen their understanding of the mathematics and the ability to communicate effectively.

Science in second grade centers on a hands-on, student-centered exploration of our natural world. Earth, Life and Physical Science are studied throughout the year, giving students opportunities to build their understanding of core ideas while developing scientific skills such as conducting investigations and analyzing data. The changing seasons are studied throughout the year as students investigate the life cycles of living things and environmental changes and causes. Finally, students explore the nature of matter, the sun, moon and stars and the effects of forces on objects.

Students become aware of their community and the role society plays in establishing a democracy. America’s history is explored and students connect the country’s past to its present and to their lives. Georgia’s history is featured including Creek and Cherokee American Indian culture. Maps and globes are used to connect standards about geography with a focus on the topography of Georgia. Decision-making, laws and beliefs, community- and society-based actions and how they impact citizens help students understand the world around them. Economic decision-making is introduced.

Awareness of the elements of creativity inspires 2nd graders in Visual Arts and Music. Building on basic experiences in Music, students expand the use of pitch and rhythm concepts to create musical sentences and pentatonic melodies. Learning is deepened through an understanding of patterns and musical form. The Visual Arts allow students to explore formal and expressive qualities of art and create their own works using additional art elements and design principles. In Health, students explore personal health and safety, illness, and disease prevention. PE gives students foundational knowledge of physical fitness, coordination and skill development.

 Daily reading as a family is an enjoyable and important way to grow a love of learning. Create time to read during breakfast or in the evening before bed. Share your own favorite childhood books and talk about why the book is one you still love. Visit your local library and take advantage of school book fairs and literacy events. By sharing what you love about reading and showing them how much it means to you by reading with them, students will see how important literacy is in their lives.


How Do We Assess Students In 2nd Grade?



Your child will have a variety of classroom assessments that will aid his or her teacher in knowing how to provide the best possible instruction for your child. These assessments will also help you know how well your child is learning and what extra support may be needed. In addition, your child will participate in some standardized assessments that are used to gauge how well your child is doing in his or her grade level.

All students in grades K-9 participate in the universal screening process for reading and math using a digital inventory. Your second grader’s proficiency and progress in reading and math will be measured three times a year using the reading inventory and math inventory. 

PARENT TIPS: Assessment
 Parents can support students in easing any concern or anxiety about assessment:

  • Talk with your child about any tests or assessments.
  • Explain that assessment is a natural and important part of any learning. Tests help students understand their thinking better and make improvements for better performance in the future.
  • Remind your child to pay attention to the directions and to listen carefully as they are read. Encourage your child to take time to understand the questions before selecting an answer.
  • A good night’s rest is the best way to arrive focused on test day!

Remember that assessment is an important and helpful part of learning for students of all ages. Your support and involvement in your child’s education is critical to success in school and in life. Research shows when parents play a key role in their child’s learning, their child’s achievement excels.


What Instructional Resources Are Used In 2nd Grade?



Instructional resources are provided to students and teachers to support teaching and learning. The titles listed below have been recommended to our Board by a committee of teachers, parents and community representatives and approved through the textbook adoption process (See Board Rule IFAA-R). Additional resources to enhance the instruction are constantly added by local schools and individual teachers.


Course/Content Area 



English Language Arts

Scholastic Leveled Bookroom
Ready to Go Classroom Library


English Language Arts

Benchmark Phonics
Benchmark Literacy


English Language Arts

Units of Study Writing



My Math, Grade 2,
Teacher Kit



Georgia Science, Grade 2



Science Dimensions, Grade 2


Social Studies

Studies Weekly

Studies Weekly


What Is My Student's Framework For Learning In 2nd Grade?

Second Grade Teaching & Learning Frameworks
English/Language Arts  |  Math  |  Science  |  Social Studies

What Does The Second Grade Report Card Look Like?


English – Second Grade Report Card (Rev. 4/23)

Español – Boleta de Calificaciones 2er Grado (Rev. 4/23)

Portugues – Boletim da 2a Série (Rev. 4/23)


Learning & Assessing Postcards 

English    |    En Español   |    한국어로    |   Em Português


Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards Logo


Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - English Language Arts




Key Ideas and Details 

ELAGSE2RL1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. 

ELAGSE2RL2 Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral. 

ELAGSE2RL3 Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges. 

Craft and Structure 

ELAGSE2RL4 Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. 

ELAGSE2RL5 Describe the overall structure of a story including describing how the beginning introduces the story, the middle provides major events and challenges, and the ending concludes the action. 

ELAGSE2RL6 Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud. 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 

ELAGSE2RL7 Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot. 

ELAGSE2RL8 (Not applicable to literature).

ELAGSE2RL9 Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

ELAGSE2RL10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.


Key Ideas and Details 

ELAGSE2RI1 Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. 

ELAGSE2RI2 Identify the main topic of a multi-paragraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text. 

ELAGSE2RI3 Describe the connection between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text. 

Craft and Structure 

ELAGSE2RI4 Determine the meanings of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area. 

ELAGSE2RI5 Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. 

ELAGSE2RI6 Identify the main purpose of a text, including what the author wants to answer, explain, or describe. 

Integration of Knowledge and ideas 

ELAGSE2RI7 Explain how specific images (e.g., a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text. 

ELAGSE2RI8 Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. 

ELAGSE2RI9 Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

ELAGSE2RI10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.


Print Concepts  – Kindergarten and 1st grade only.
Phonological Awareness – Kindergarten and 1st grade only. 

Phonics and Word Recognition 

ELAGSE2RF3 Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.

a. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words.
b. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams.
c. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels.
d. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes.
e. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences.


ELAGSE2RF4 Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
a. Read on-level text with purpose and understanding.
b. Read on-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
c. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.
d. Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words.


Text Types and Purpose 

ELAGSE2W1 Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, alsoto connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section. 

ELAGSE2W2 Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. 

ELAGSE2W3 Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated event or short sequence of events, include details to describe actions, thoughts, and feelings, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide a sense of closure. 

Production and Distribution of Writing 

ELAGSE2W4 (Begins in grade 3). 

ELAGSE2W5 With guidance and support from adults and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.
a. May include prewriting.

ELAGSE2W6 With guidance and support from adults, use a variety of tools to produce and publish writing, including digital tools and collaboration with peers. 

Research to Build and Present Knowledge 

ELAGSE2W7 Participate in shared research and writing projects (e.g., read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report; record science observations). 

ELAGSE2W8 Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. 

ELAGSE2W9 (Begins in grade 4). 

Range of Writing 

ELAGSE2W10 (Begins in grade 3). 


Comprehension and Collaboration 

ELAGSE2SL1 Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
b. Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
c. Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.

ELAGSE2SL2 Recount or describe key ideas or details from written texts read aloud or information presented orally or through other media.

ELAGSE2SL3 Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension, gather additional information, or deepen understanding of a topic or issue.

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 

ELAGSE2SL4 Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details, speaking audibly in coherent sentences. 

ELAGSE2SL5 With guidance and support, create audio recordings of stories or poems; add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts and feelings. 

ELAGSE2SL6 Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.) 


Conventions of Standard English 

ELAGSE2L1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Use collective nouns (e.g., group).
b. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish).
c. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves).
d. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told).
e. Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified.
f. Produce, expand, and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e.g., The boy watched the movie; The little boy watched the movie; The action movie was watched by the little boy).
g. Create documents with legible handwriting

ELAGSE2L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names.
b. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.
c. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives.
d. Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e.g., cage → badge; boy → boil).
e. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings.

Knowledge of Language

ELAGSE2L3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Compare formal and informal uses of English.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

ELAGSE2L4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.

a. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
c. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
d. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
e. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

ELAGSE2L5 Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.

a. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe foods that are spicy or juicy).
b. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny).

ELAGSE2L6 Use words and phrases acquired through conversations, reading and being read to, and responding to texts, including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e.g., When other kids are happy that makes me happy).


Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Mathematics



Standards for Mathematical Practice 

Mathematical Practices are listed with each grade’s mathematical content standards to reflect the need to connect the mathematical practices to mathematical content in instruction. 

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).

Students are expected to: 

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 

In second grade, students realize that doing mathematics involves solving problems and discussing how they solved them. Students explain to themselves the meaning of a problem and look for ways to solve it. They may use concrete objects or pictures to help them conceptualize and solve problems. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, “Does this make sense?” They make conjectures about the solution and plan out a problem solving approach.

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 

Younger students recognize that a number represents a specific quantity. They connect the quantity to written symbols. Quantitative reasoning entails creating a representation of a problem while attending to the meanings of the quantities. Second graders begin to know and use different properties of operations and objects.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 

Second graders may construct arguments using concrete referents, such as objects, pictures, drawings, and actions. They practice their mathematical communication skills as they participate in mathematical discussions involving questions like “How did you get that?”, “Explain your thinking,” and “Why is that true?” They not only explain their own thinking, but listen to others’ explanations. They decide if the explanations make sense and ask appropriate questions.

4. Model with mathematics. 

In early grades, students experiment with representing problem situations in multiple ways including numbers, words (mathematical language), drawing pictures, using objects, acting out, making a chart or list, creating equations, etc. Students need opportunities to connect the different representations and explain the connections. They should be able to use all of these representations as needed.

5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 

In second grade, students consider the available tools (including estimation) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be better suited. For instance, second graders may decide to solve a problem by drawing a picture rather than writing an equation.

6. Attend to precision. 

As children begin to develop their mathematical communication skills, they try to use clear and precise language in their discussions with others and when they explain their own reasoning.

7. Look for and make use of structure. 

Second graders look for patterns. For instance, they adopt mental math strategies based on patterns (making ten, fact families, doubles).

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. 

Students notice repetitive actions in counting and computation, etc. When children have multiple opportunities to add and subtract, they look for shortcuts, such as rounding up and then adjusting the answer to compensate for the rounding. Students continually check their work by asking themselves, “Does this make sense?”

Operations and Algebraic Thinking (2.0A) 

Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction. 

MGSE2.OA.1 Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve one- and two-step word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

Add and subtract within 20. 

MGSE2.OA.2 Fluently add and subtract within 20 using mental strategies. By end of Grade 2, know from memory all sums of two one-digit numbers.

Work with equal groups of objects to gain foundations for multiplication. 

MGSE2.OA.3 Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.

MGSE2.OA.4 Use addition to find the total number of objects arranged in rectangular arrays with up to 5 rows and up to 5 columns; write an equation to express the total as a sum of equal addends.

Number and Operations in Base Ten (2.NBT) 

Understand place value. 

MGSE2.NBT.1 Understand that the three digits of a three-digit number represent amounts of hundreds, tens, and ones; e.g., 706 equals 7 hundreds, 0 tens, and 6 ones. Understand the following as special cases:

a. 100 can be thought of as a bundle of ten tens — called a “hundred.”
b. The numbers 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine hundreds (and 0 tens and 0 ones).

Understand place value (continued) 

MGSE2.NBT.2 Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s.

MGSE2.NBT.3 Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

MGSE2.NBT.4 Compare two three-digit numbers based on meanings of the hundreds, tens, and ones digits, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract. 

MGSE2.NBT.5 Fluently add and subtract within 100 using strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

MGSE2.NBT.6 Add up to four two-digit numbers using strategies based on place value and properties of operations.

MGSE2.NBT.7 Add and subtract within 1000, using concrete models or drawings and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method.

MGSE2.NBT.8 Mentally add 10 or 100 to a given number 100–900, and mentally subtract 10 or 100 from a given number 100–900.

MGSE2.NBT.9 Explain why addition and subtraction strategies work, using place value and the properties of operations.

Measurement and Data (2.MD) 

Measure and estimate lengths in standard units. 

MGSE2.MD.1 Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

MGSE2.MD.2 Measure the length of an object twice, using length units of different measurements; describe how the two measurements relate to the size of the unit chosen. Understand the relative size of units in different systems of measurement. For example, an inch is longer than a centimeter. (Students are not expected to convert between systems of measurement.)

MGSE2.MD.3 Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.

MGSE2.MD.4 Measure to determine how much longer one object is than another, expressing the length difference in terms of a standard length unit.

Relate addition and subtraction to length. 

MGSE2.MD.5 Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

MGSE2.MD.6 Represent whole numbers as lengths from 0 on a number line diagram with equally spaced points corresponding to the numbers 0, 1, 2, and represent whole-number sums and differences within 100 on a number line diagram.

MGSE2.MD.7 Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.

MGSE2.MD.8 Solve word problems involving dollar bills, quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies, using $ and ¢ symbols appropriately. Example: If you have 2 dimes and 3 pennies, how many cents do you have?

Represent and interpret data. 

MGSE2.MD.9 Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

MGSE2.MD.10 Draw a picture graph and a bar graph (with single-unit scale) to represent a data set with up to four categories. Solve simple put-together, take-apart, and compare problems using information presented in a bar graph.

Geometry (2.G) 

Reason with shapes and their attributes. 

MGSE2.G.1 Recognize and draw shapes having specified attributes, such as a given number of angles or a given number of equal faces. Identify triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, hexagons, and cubes.

MGSE2.G.2 Partition a rectangle into rows and columns of same-size squares and count to find the total number of them.

MGSE2.G.3 Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.


Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Social Studies




In second grade, the various social studies strands become interwoven with the historical strand. The history strand focuses on important historical figures in Georgia and the Creek and Cherokee cultures in Georgia. The geography strand emphasizes the geography of Georgia and relates to the historical study. In addition to the positive character traits of the individuals and groups in the historical strand, the basic concept of government is also introduced. Basic economics concepts continue to be introduced.


The following connecting themes and enduring understandings will feature prominently in the course and help students increase their understanding and retention of knowledge.

1. DISTRIBUTION OF POWER: The student will understand that laws and people’s beliefs help decide who gets to make choices in government.

2. INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, INSTITUTIONS: The student will understand that what people, groups, and institutions say and do can help or harm others whether they mean to or not.

3. LOCATION: The student will understand that where people live matters.

4. PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTION: The student will understand that the ways people make, get, and use goods and services may be different from how people in other places make, get, and use goods and services.

5. SCARCITY: The student will understand that because people cannot have everything they want, they have to make choices.

6. TIME, CHANGE AND CONTINUITY: The student will understand that that some things will change over time, while other things will stay the same.


The student will be able to locate, analyze, and synthesize information related to social studies topics and apply this information to solve problems and make decisions.

1. Compare similarities and differences
2. Organize items chronologically
3. Identify issues and/or problems and alternative solutions
4. Distinguish between fact and opinion
5. Identify main idea, detail, sequence of events, and cause and effect in a social studies context
6. Identify and use primary and secondary sources
7. Interpret timelines
8. Identify social studies reference resources to use for a specific purpose
9. Construct charts and tables
10. Analyze artifacts


The student will use maps and globes to retrieve social studies information.

1. Use a compass rose to identify cardinal directions
2. Use intermediate directions
3. Use a letter/number grid system to determine location
4. Compare and contrast the categories of natural, cultural, and political features found on maps
5. Use graphic scales to determine distances on a map
6. Use map key/legend to acquire information from historical, physical, political, resource, product and economic maps
7. Use a map to explain impact of geography on historical and current events


SS2H1 Describe the lives of historical figures in Georgia history. 

a. Identify the contributions made by these historic figures: James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove (founding of Georgia)
b. Sequoyah (development of a Cherokee alphabet)
c. Jackie Robinson (sports)
d. Martin Luther King Jr. (civil rights)
e. Juliette Gordon Low (Girl Scouts and leadership)
f. Jimmy Carter (leadership and human rights)

SS2H2 Describe the Georgia Creek and Cherokee cultures of the past in terms of tools, clothing, homes, ways of making a living, and accomplishments

a. Compare and contrast the Georgia Creek and Cherokee cultures of the past to those of Georgians today.


SS2G1 Locate and compare major topographical features of Georgia and describe how these features define Georgia’s surface. 

a. Locate and compare the geographic regions of Georgia: Blue Ridge Mountains, Piedmont, Coastal Plain, Valley and Ridge, and Appalachian Plateau.
b. Locate on a physical map the major rivers: Savannah, Flint, and Chattahoochee.

SS2G2 Describe the cultural and geographic systems associated with the historical figures in SS2H1 and Georgia’s Creeks and Cherokees in SS2H2. 

a. Identify specific locations significant to the life and times of each historic figure, and the Creek and Cherokee, on a political map or physical map.
b. Describe how each historic figure and the Creek and Cherokee adapted to and were influenced by their environments.
c. Describe how the region in which these historic figures lived affected their lives and compare these regions to the region in which the students live.
d. Describe how the regions in Georgia where the Creek and Cherokee lived and how the people used their local resources.


SS2CG1 Define the concept of government and the need for rules and laws. 

SS2CG2 Identify the following elected official of the executive branch and where they work: 

a. President (leader of our nation) and Washington, D.C. – White House
b. Governor (leader of our state) and Atlanta, GA – State Capitol Building
c. Mayor (leader of a city) and city hall

SS2CG3 Give examples of how the historical figures in SS2H1 demonstrate the positive citizenship traits of honesty, dependability, trustworthiness, honor, civility, good sportsmanship, patience, and compassion. 


SS2E1 Explain that because of scarcity, people must make choices and incur opportunity costs. 

SS2E2 Identify ways in which goods and services are allocated (such as: price, majority rule, contests, force, sharing, lottery, authority, first-come, first-served, and personal characteristics)

SS2E3 Explain that people usually use money to obtain the goods and services they want and explain how money makes trade easier than barter. 

SS2E4 Describe the costs and benefits of personal spending and saving choices. 


Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Science



Second Grade Standards 

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards (CT & LS) for science are designed to provide foundational knowledge and skills for all students to develop proficiency in science. The Project 2061’s Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the follow up work, A Framework for K-12 Science Education were used as the core of the standards to determine appropriate content and process skills for students. The Science Georgia Standards of Excellence focus on a limited number of core disciplinary ideas and crosscutting concepts which build from Kindergarten to high school. The standards are written with the core knowledge to be mastered integrated with the science and engineering practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design.

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards drive instruction. Hands-on, student-centered, and inquiry-based approaches should be the emphasis of instruction. The standards are a required minimum set of expectations that show proficiency in science. However, instruction can extend beyond these minimum expectations to meet student needs. At the same time, these standards set a maximum expectation on what will be assessed by the Georgia Milestones Assessment System.

Science consists of a way of thinking and investigating, as well a growing body of knowledge about the natural world. To become literate in science, students need to possess sufficient understanding of fundamental science content knowledge, the ability to engage in the science and engineering practices, and to use scientific and technological information correctly. Technology should be infused into the curriculum and the safety of the student should always be foremost in instruction.

The Second Grade, Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards for science engage students in raising questions about the world around them and seeking answers by making observations and exploring. At the appropriate times, students will ask, “How do you know?” and will attempt to answer the question. They will use whole numbers as well as basic fractions (such as one-half and one-fourth) to identify and analyze scientific data. Second graders will find sums and differences of single digit numbers and then justify the answer. They will give rough estimates to problems and estimate lengths, weights, and time intervals. They will explain to others how to solve numerical problems related to a science activity.


In each unit of study:  Students will define simple problems based-on observations, ask questions, and carry out investigations with guidance.  In order to generate solutions to a problem, students will gather evidence, record information, and use numbers to describe patterns.  In order to communicate solutions, student will use data to support their explanations (arguments).  

Earth Science


Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about stars having different sizes and brightness.
a. Ask questions to describe the physical attributes (size and brightness) of stars.
b. Construct an argument to support the claim that although the sun appears to be the brightest and largest star, it is actually medium in size and brightness.


Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to develop an understanding of the patterns of the Sun and the moon and the sun’s effect on Earth.
a. Plan and carry out an investigation to determine the effect of the position of the sun in relation to a fixed object on Earth at various times of the day.
b. Design and build a structure that demonstrates how shadows change throughout the day.
c. Represent data in tables and/or graphs of the length of the day and night to recognize the change in seasons.
d. Use data from personal observations to describe, illustrate, and predict how the appearance of the moon changes over time in a pat
(Clarification statement: Students are not required to know the names of the phases of the moon or understand the tilt of the Earth.)

Physical Science

S2P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties of matter and changes that occur in objects.

a. Ask questions to describe and classify different objects according to their physical properties.
(Clarification statement: Examples of physical properties could include color, mass, length, texture, hardness, strength, absorbency, and flexibility.)
b. Construct an explanation for how structures made from small pieces (linking cubes, building blocks) can be disassembled and
then rearranged to make new and different structures.
c. Provide evidence from observations to construct an explanation that some changes in matter caused by heating or cooling can
be reversed and some changes are irreversible.
(Clarification statement: Changes in matter could include heating or freezing of water, baking a cake, boiling an egg.)

S2P2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain the effect of a force (a push or a pull) in the movement of an object (changes in speed and direction).

a. Plan and carry out an investigation to demonstrate how pushing and pulling on an object affects the motion of the object.
b. Design a device to change the speed or direction of an object.
c. Record and analyze data to decide if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a force (a push or a pull).

Life Science

S2L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the life cycles of different living organisms. 

a. Ask questions to determine the sequence of the life cycle of common animals in your area: a mammal such as a cat, dog or classroom pet, bird such as a chicken, an amphibian such as a frog, and an insect such as a butterfly.
b. Plan and carry out an investigation of the life cycle of a plant by growing a plant from a seed and by recording changes over a period of time.
c. Develop a simple model that depicts an animal’s role in dispersing seeds or in the pollination of plants.
d. Develop models to illustrate the unique and diverse life cycles of organisms other than humans.


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