What Do Students Learn In 8th Grade?
8th GRADE LEARNING :
The Cobb County School District is committed to providing your child an academic experience that will develop his or her knowledge and skills at every grade level and to ensuring a strong foundation is established for your child to reach his or her greatest potential. Our teaching is aligned with content standards, and our teachers bring those standards to life for your child through various strategies designed to meet your child’s learning strengths and needs.
In Cobb County classrooms, students are immersed every day in learning experiences based on exploration, problem-solving, and critical thinking in all content areas including the core areas of English Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science. Connections classes allow students to enjoy specialized academic content including Career Tech*, Health, Music, Physical Education, Technology, Visual Arts, and World Languages* Excellence in teaching guides your child’s educational experience from Kindergarten to graduation and into life.
* Programming available varies at local schools
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS:
Schools offer varying Connections classes for middle school students. Connections can include, but are not limited to, Health, Physical Education, Visual Arts, Performing Arts, Band, Orchestra, Chorus, Career Tech and Foreign Language. The purpose of Connections is to provide broad and rich exposure to areas that nurture student interest, talent, and skills.
PARENTS TIPS: Reading
How Do We Assess Students In 8th Grade?
Your child will have a variety of classroom assessments that will aid his or her teacher in knowing how to provide the best possible instruction for your child. Also, these assessments will help you know how well your child is learning and what extra support may be needed. In addition, your child will participate in some standardized assessments that are used to gauge how well your child is doing, based upon his or her grade level expectations.
The State of Georgia requires that students, in grades 6-8, participate in the annual administration of state assessments. The state assessment is called the Georgia Milestones Assessment System. Georgia Milestones measures how well students have learned the knowledge and skills in language arts, mathematics, science and social studies. Students in grade 8 will take an End of Grade (EOG) assessment as part of the Georgia Milestones. The EOG will include multiple choice, short answer, and technology-enhanced questions. The language arts EOG has a third section, which focuses on writing.
In the fall, students in 8th grade will participate in the College Board’s PSAT 8/9. This test measures skill levels and academic progress, giving students a foundation for success as they transition to high school.
All students in grades K-9 participate in the universal screening process for reading and math using a digital inventory. Your eighth grader’s progress in reading and math will be measured three times a year.
TESTING IN 8th GRADE:
Mark the Calendar: PSAT 8/9 (formerly ReadiStep): October
Question Types: Students respond to multiple-choice questions, called selected-response. They write short answers to grade-appropriate questions. Higher-order thinking skills are employed at all levels of testing. Performance-based assessments and assignments give hands-on opportunities to express learning at different rates and levels.
PARENT TIPS: Assessment
Remember that assessment is an important and helpful part of learning for students of all ages. Your support and involvement in your child’s education is critical to success in school and in life. Research shows when parents play a key role in their child’s learning, their child’s achievement excels.
What Instructional Resources Are Used In 8th Grade?
Instructional resources are provided to students and teachers to support teaching and learning. The titles listed below have been recommended to our Board by a committee of teachers, parents and community representatives and approved through the textbook adoption process (See Board Rule IFAA-R). Additional resources to enhance the instruction are constantly added by local schools and individual teachers.
What Is My Student's Framework For Learning In 8th Grade
Learning & Assessing Postcards
Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - English Language Arts
READING LITERARY – RL
Key Ideas and Details
ELAGSE8RL1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
ELAGSE8RL2 Determine a theme and/or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
ELAGSE8RL3 Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.
Craft and Structure
ELAGSE8RL4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
ELAGSE8RL5 Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.
ELAGSE8RL6 Analyze how differences in the points of view of characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
ELAGSE8RL7 Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.
ELAGSE8RL8 (Not applicable to literature).
ELAGSE8RL9 Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
ELAGSE8RL10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
READING INFORMATIONAL – RI
Key Ideas and Details
ELAGSE8RI1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
ELAGSE8RI2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
ELAGSE8RI3 Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).
Craft and Structure
ELAGSE8RI4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
ELAGSE8RI5 Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
ELAGSE8RI6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
Integration of Knowledge and ideas
ELAGSE8RI7 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
ELAGSE8RI8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
ELAGSE8RI9 Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
ELAGSE8RI10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
WRITING – W
Text Types and Purpose
ELAGSE8W1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
ELAGSE8W2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
ELAGSE8W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
Production and Distribution of Writing
ELAGSE8W4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1–3 above.)
ELAGSE8W5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language Standards 1–3 up to and including grade 8.)
ELAGSE8W6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing & present the relationships between info and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
ELAGSE8W7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
ELAGSE8W8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
ELAGSE8W9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
a. Apply grade 8 Reading Standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
Range of Writing
ELAGSE8W10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
SPEAKING AND LISTENING – SL
Comprehension and Collaboration
ELAGSE8SL1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
ELAGSE8SL2 Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
ELAGSE8SL3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas
ELAGSE8SL4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation.
ELAGSE8SL5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.
ELAGSE8SL6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language Standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.)
LANGUAGE – L
Conventions of Standard English
ELAGSE8L1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
a. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
ELAGSE8L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
a. Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
Knowledge of Language
ELAGSE8L3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.
a. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).
Vocabulary Acquisition and Use
ELAGSE8L4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
ELAGSE8L5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
ELAGSE8L6 Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.
Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Mathematics
Standards for Mathematical Practice
The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).
1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
In grade 8, students solve real world problems through the application of algebraic and geometric concepts. Students seek the meaning of a problem and look for efficient ways to represent and solve it. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, “What is the most efficient way to solve the problem?”, “Does this make sense?”, and “Can I solve the problem in a different way?”
2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively.
In grade 8, students represent a wide variety of real world contexts through the use of real numbers and variables in mathematical expressions, equations, and inequalities. They examine patterns in data and assess the degree of linearity of functions. Students contextualize to understand the meaning of the number or variable as related to the problem and decontextualize to manipulate symbolic representations by applying properties of operations.
3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
In grade 8, students construct arguments using verbal or written explanations accompanied by expressions, equations, inequalities, models, and graphs, tables, and other data displays (i.e. box plots, dot plots, histograms, etc.). They further refine their mathematical communication skills through mathematical discussions in which they critically evaluate their own thinking and the thinking of other students. They pose questions like “How did you get that?”, “Why is that true?” “Does that always work?” They explain their thinking to others and respond to others’ thinking.
4. Model with mathematics.
In grade 8, students model problem situations symbolically, graphically, tabularly, and contextually. Students form expressions, equations, or inequalities from real world contexts and connect symbolic and graphical representations. Students solve systems of linear equations and compare properties of functions provided in different forms. Students use scatterplots to represent data and describe associations between variables. Students need many opportunities to connect and explain the connections between the different representations. They should be able to use all of these representations as appropriate to a problem context.
5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
Students consider available tools (including estimation and technology) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, students in grade 8 may translate a set of data given in tabular form to a graphical representation to compare it to another data set. Students might draw pictures, use applets, or write equations to show the relationships between the angles created by a transversal.
6. Attend to precision.
In grade 8, students continue to refine their mathematical communication skills by using clear and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. Students use appropriate terminology when referring to the number system, functions, geometric figures, and data displays.
7. Look for and make use of structure.
Students routinely seek patterns or structures to model and solve problems. In grade 8, students apply properties to generate equivalent expressions and solve equations. Students examine patterns in tables and graphs to generate equations and describe relationships. Additionally, students experimentally verify the effects of transformations and describe them in terms of congruence and similarity.
8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning.
In grade 8, students use repeated reasoning to understand algorithms and make generalizations about patterns. Students use iterative processes to determine more precise rational approximations for irrational numbers. During multiple opportunities to solve and model problems, they notice that the slope of a line and rate of change are the same value. Students flexibly make connections between covariance, rates, and representations showing the relationships between quantities.
The Number System (8.NS)
Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.
MGSE8.NS.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.
MGSE8.NS.2 Use rational approximation of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., estimate π2to the nearest tenth). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of √2 (square root of 2), show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations.
Expressions and Equations (8.EE)
Work with radicals and integer exponents.
MGSE8.EE.1 Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3(–5) = 3(–3) = 1/(33) = 1/27.
MGSE8.EE.2 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations. Recognize that x2 = p (where p is a positive rational number and lxl < 25) has 2 solutions and x3 = p (where p is a negative or positive rational number and lxl < 10) has one solution. Evaluate square roots of perfect squares < 625 and cube roots of perfect cubes > -1000 and < 1000.
MGSE8.EE.3 Use numbers expressed in scientific notation to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 108 and the population of the world as 7 × 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger.
MGSE8.EE.4 Add, subtract, multiply and divide numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Understand scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g. use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology (e.g. calculators).
Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations.
MGSE8.EE.5 Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance‐time graph to a distance‐time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed.
MGSE8.EE.6 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non‐vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.
Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations.
MGSE8.EE.7 Solve linear equations in one variable.
a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers).
MGSE8.EE.8 Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations (systems of linear equations).
a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.
Define, evaluate, and compare functions.
MGSE8.F.1. Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.
MGSE8.F.2. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change.
MGSE8.F.3. Interpret the equation =+ as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function =2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line.
Use functions to model relationships between quantities
MGSE8.F.4. Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (,) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.
MGSE8.F.5. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.
Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software.
MGSE8.G.1 Verify experimentally the congruence properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: lines are taken to lines and line segments to line segments of the same length; angles are taken to angles of the same measure; parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.
MGSE8.G.2. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.
MGSE8.G.3 Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations and reflections on two‐dimensional figures using coordinates.
MGSE8.G.4 Understand that a two‐dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two‐dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.
MGSE8.G.5. Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the three angles appear to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so.
Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem.
MGSE8.G.6. Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.
MGSE8.G.7. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.
MGSE8.G.8. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.
Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres.
MGSE8.G.9 Apply the formulas for the volume of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.
Statistics and Probability (8.SP)
Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data.
MGSE8.SP.1. Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.
MGSE8.SP.2. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.
MGSE8.SP.3. Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height.
MGSE8.SP.4 Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table.
a. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects.
Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Social Studies
In eighth grade, students study Georgia geography, history, government, and economics. While the four strands are interwoven, ample opportunity is also provided for in-depth study of the geography of Georgia and the government of Georgia. U.S. historical events are included, as appropriate, to ensure students understand Georgia’s role in the history of the United States.
CONNECTING THEMES AND ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS
The following connecting themes and enduring understandings will feature prominently in the course and help students increase their understanding and retention of knowledge.
1. CONFLICT AND CHANGE: The student will understand that when there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result.
2. DISTRIBUTION OF POWER: The student will understand that distribution of power in government is a product of existing documents and laws combined with contemporary value and beliefs.
3. INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND INSTITUTIONS: the student will understand that the actions of individuals, groups, and/or institutions affect society through intended and unintended consequences.
4. LOCATION: The student will understand that location affects a society’s economy, culture, and development.
5. MOVEMENT/MIGRATION: The student will understand that the movement or migration of people and ideas affects all societies involved.
6. PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTION: The student will understand that the production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the society are affected by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.
7. RULE OF LAW: The student will understand that in a democracy, rule of law influences the behavior of citizens, establishes procedures for making policies, and limits the power of government.
8. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION: The student will understand that technological innovations have consequences, both intended and unintended, for a society.
9. GOVERNMENT: A society increases in complexity and interacts with other societies, the complexity of government also increases.
INFORMATION PROCESSING SKILLS
The student will be able to locate, analyze, and synthesize information related to social studies topics and apply this information to solve problems and make decisions.
1. Compare similarities and differences
MAP AND GLOBE SKILLS
The student will use maps and globes to retrieve social studies information.
1. Use a compass rose to identify cardinal directions
SS8H1 Evaluate the impact of European exploration and settlement on American Indians in Georgia.
a. Describe the characteristics of American Indians living in Georgia at the time of European contact; to include culture, food, weapons/tools, and shelter.
SS8H2 Analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history.
a. Explain the importance of the Charter of 1732, including the reasons for settlement (philanthropy, economics, and defense).
SS8H3 Analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolutionary Era.
a. Explain the causes of the American Revolution as they impacted Georgia; include the French and Indian War, Proclamation of 1763, and the Stamp Act.
SS8H4 Explain significant factors that affected westward expansion in Georgia between 1789 and 1840.
a. Explain reasons for the establishment of the University of Georgia, and for the westward movement of Georgia’s capitals.
SS8H5 Analyze the impact of the Civil War on Georgia.
a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, the Dred Scott case, Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860, and the debate over secession in Georgia.
SS8H6 Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia.
a. Explain the roles of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments in Reconstruction.
SS8H7 Evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia during the New South Era.
a. Identify the ways individuals, groups, and events attempted to shape the New South; include the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Expositions, and Tom Watson and the Populists.
SS8H8 Analyze Georgia’s participation in important events that occurred from World War I through the Great Depression.
a. Describe Georgia’s contributions to World War I.
SS8H9 Describe the role of Georgia in WWII.
a. Describe key events leading up to American involvement in World War II; include the Lend-Lease Act and the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
SS8H10 Evaluate key post-World War II developments in Georgia.
a. Explain how technology transformed agriculture and created a population shift within the state.
SS8H11 Evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement.
a. Explain Georgia’s response to Brown v. Board of Education including the 1956 flag and the Sibley Commission.
SS8H12 Explain the importance of developments in Georgia since the late 20th century
a. Explain how the continued development of Atlanta under mayors Maynard Jackson and Andrew Young impacted the state.
SS8G1 Describe Georgia’s geography and climate.
a. Locate Georgia in relation to region, nation, continent, and hemispheres.
SS8CG1 Describe the foundations of Georgia’s government.
a. Explain the basic structure of the Georgia state constitution (preamble, bill of rights, articles, and amendments) as well as its relationship to the United States Constitution.
S8CG2 Analyze the role of the legislative branch in Georgia.
a. Explain the qualifications for members of the General Assembly and its role as the law-making body of Georgia.
SS8CG3 Analyze the role of the executive branch in Georgia state government.
a. Explain the qualifications for the governor and lieutenant governor and their role in the executive branch of state government.
SS8CG4 Analyze the role of the judicial branch in Georgia state government.
a. Describe the ways that judges are selected in Georgia.
SS8CG5 Explain how the Georgia court system treats juvenile offenders.
a. Explain the difference between delinquent and unruly behavior and the consequences of each.
SS8CG6 Analyze the role of local governments in the state of Georgia.
a. Explain the origins and purposes, of city, county, and special-purpose governments in Georgia.
SS8E1 Explain how the four transportation systems (road, air, water, and rail) of Georgia contribute to the development and growth of the state’s economy.
a. Evaluate the ways in which the Interstate Highway System, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, deepwater ports, and railroads interact to support the exchange of goods and services domestically and internationally.
SS8E2 Evaluate the influence of Georgia-based businesses on the State’s economic growth and development.
a. Describe how profit is an incentive for entrepreneurs.
SS8E3 Explain the principles of effective personal money management.
a. Explain that income is the starting point for personal financial management.
READING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES (RHSS) GRADES 6-8
Key Ideas and Details
L6-8RHSS1: Cite specific textural evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources.
L6-8RHSS2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions.
L6-8RHSS3: Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered).
Craft and Structure
L6-8RHSS4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
L6-8RHSS5: Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
L6-8RHSS6: Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts).
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
L6-8RHSS7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts.
L6-8RHSS8: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text.
L6-8RHSS9: Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
L6-8RHSS10: By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
WRITING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS GRADES 6-8 (WHST) GRADES 6-8
Text Types and Purposes
L6-8WHST1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content
a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
L6-8WHST2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.
a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
L6-8WHST3: (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement)
Production and Distribution of Writing
L6-8WHST4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience
L6-8WHST5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writings as needed by planning, revision, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
L6-8WHST6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently.
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
L6-8WHST7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
L6-8WHST8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
L6-8WHST9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research.
Range of Writing
L6-8WHST10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Science
8th Grade Physical Science Standards
The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards (CT & LS) for science are designed to provide foundational knowledge and skills for all students to develop proficiency in science. The Project 2061’s Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the follow up work, A Framework for K-12 Science Education were used as the core of the standards to determine appropriate content and process skills for students. The Science Georgia Standards of Excellence focus on a limited number of core disciplinary ideas and crosscutting concepts which build from Kindergarten to high school. The standards are written with the core knowledge to be mastered integrated with the science and engineering practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design.
The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards drive instruction. Hands-on, student-centered, and inquiry-based approaches should be the emphasis of instruction. The standards are a required minimum set of expectations that show proficiency in science. However, instruction can extend beyond these minimum expectations to meet student needs. At the same time, these standards set a maximum expectation on what will be assessed by the Georgia Milestones Assessment System.
Science consists of a way of thinking and investigating, as well a growing body of knowledge about the natural world. To become literate in science, students need to possess sufficient understanding of fundamental science content knowledge, the ability to engage in the science and engineering practices, and to use scientific and technological information correctly. Technology should be infused into the curriculum and the safety of the student should always be foremost in instruction.
Eighth grade students keep records of their observations, use those records to analyze the data they collect, recognize patterns in the data, use simple charts and graphs to represent the relationships they see, and find more than one way to interpret their findings. They develop conceptual understanding of the laws of conservation of matter and conservation of energy, are able to explain the characteristics of the motion of an object (speed, acceleration) and the way that forces may change the state of motion of an object. They use what they observe to explain the difference between physical and chemical changes and cause and effect relationships between force, mass, and the motion of objects. Students in eighth grade construct explanations based on evidence on the difference and similarities between electromagnetic and mechanical waves. Eighth graders plan and carry out investigations, describe observations, and show information in graphical form. The students replicate investigations and compare results to find similarities and differences.
In each unit of study: Students will analyze problems by asking questions, making observations, gathering information and defining criteria and constraints.
S8P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the structure and properties of matter.
a. Develop and use a model to compare and contrast pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures.
S8P2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the law of conservation of energy to develop arguments that energy can transform from one form to another within a system.
a. Analyze and interpret data to create graphical displays that illustrate the relationships of kinetic energy to mass and speed, and potential energy to mass and height of an object.
S8P3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about cause and effect relationships between force, mass, and the motion of objects.
a. Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns in the relationships between speed and distance, and velocity and acceleration.
S8P4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to support the claim that electromagnetic (light) waves behave differently than mechanical (sound) waves.
a. Ask questions to develop explanations about the similarities and differences between electromagnetic and mechanical waves.
S8P5. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about gravity, electricity, and magnetism as major forces acting in nature.
a. Construct an argument using evidence to support the claim that fields (i.e., magnetic fields, gravitational fields, and electric fields) exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.