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8th Grade Learning

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Learning in Cobb - 8th Grade Learning

 

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What Do Students Learn In 8th Grade?

 

8th GRADE LEARNING :

The Cobb County School District is committed to providing your child an academic experience that will develop his or her knowledge and skills at every grade level and to ensuring a strong foundation is established for your child to reach his or her greatest potential. Our teaching is aligned with content standards, and our teachers bring those standards to life for your child through various strategies designed to meet your child’s learning strengths and needs.

In Cobb County classrooms, students are immersed every day in learning experiences based on exploration, problem-solving, and critical thinking in all content areas including the core areas of English Language Arts, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science. Connections classes allow students to enjoy specialized academic content including Career Tech*, Health, Music, Physical Education, Technology, Visual Arts, and World Languages* Excellence in teaching guides your child’s educational experience from Kindergarten to graduation and into life.

* Programming available varies at local schools

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS:
Eighth grade students read both informational and literary texts. Through close reading and analysis, students determine the meaning and purpose of a variety of texts. Students read multiple texts centered around a common theme or idea and make connections among these texts. Students respond to the texts they read through speaking and writing. They write and use evidence from multiple texts or sources to inform, explain, or make an argument. Students support their claims using clear and relevant evidence to convey ideas and information. Eighth grade students engage in rich and rigorous discussion about texts and communicate using multiple media formats in group and individual presentations.

MATHEMATICS:
Eighth grade students experience a deeper understanding of linear equations in 1-and-2 variables through functions, bivariate data, and systems of equations. Geometric applications of transformations, volume of cylinders, cones and spheres, and Pythagorean Theorem are learned during the eighth grade year. Students develop a deep understanding of mathematical concepts with high-level thinking strategies to be able to communicate and justify their understanding. Mastery of the eighth grade math standards are crucial for the successful learning of the standards taught in the high school math courses.

SCIENCE:
In Physical Science, eighth graders engage in a more in-depth study of the physics and chemistry of nature. Students explore topics and solve problems involving the nature of matter, motion and forces, principles of energy, light and sound, and electricity and magnetism. A hands-on, technology-rich approach helps students build an understanding and appreciation of these key concepts as it prepares them for future scientific study and related Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses and careers.

SOCIAL STUDIES:
Georgia’s role in the history of the United States is the focus of eighth grade Social Studies. Content includes an emphasis on state geography, history, government, and economics. Specifically, students explore how the state’s economy influences productivity and growth. Students become keen consumers and communicators of information. Through study of map skills, students apply contextual knowledge to understanding about the world around them. Exploring civic responsibility, 8th graders discuss the impact of citizens’ role in their government and in their community.

CONNECTIONS:

Schools offer varying Connections classes for middle school students. Connections can include, but are not limited to, Health, Physical Education, Visual Arts, Performing Arts, Band, Orchestra, Chorus, Career Tech and Foreign Language. The purpose of Connections is to provide broad and rich exposure to areas that nurture student interest, talent, and skills.


PARENTS TIPS: Reading
 Take time this year to consider the academic, extracurricular, and career exploration options available to your child as he or she transitions to high school. Seek the counsel and advisement of the middle school teachers, counselors, and administrators and ask questions about the best placement for your child as he or she transitions. Plan to attend parent informational events that detail the high school experience and also provide suggestions to ease the transition to high school.

Revised 10.16.19
 

How Do We Assess Students In 8th Grade?

 

8th GRADE ASSESSMENT:

Your child will have a variety of classroom assessments that will aid his or her teacher in knowing how to provide the best possible instruction for your child. Also, these assessments will help you know how well your child is learning and what extra support may be needed. In addition, your child will participate in some standardized assessments that are used to gauge how well your child is doing, based upon his or her grade level expectations.

The State of Georgia requires that students, in grades 6-8, participate in the annual administration of state assessments. The state assessment is called the Georgia Milestones Assessment System. Georgia Milestones measures how well students have learned the knowledge and skills in language arts, mathematics, science and social studies. Students in grade 8 will take an End of Grade (EOG) assessment as part of the Georgia Milestones. The EOG will include multiple choice, short answer, and technology-enhanced questions. The language arts EOG has a third section, which focuses on writing. 

In the fall, students in 8th grade will participate in the College Board’s PSAT 8/9. This test measures skill levels and academic progress, giving students a foundation for success as they transition to high school.

All students in grades K-9 participate in the universal screening process for reading and math using a digital inventory. Your eighth grader’s progress in reading and math will be measured three times a year.

TESTING IN 8th GRADE:

Mark the Calendar: PSAT 8/9 (formerly ReadiStep): October
8th grade End of Grade (EOG): April-May
HS End of Course (EOC) Assessments (as applicable): May

Question Types:  Students respond to multiple-choice questions, called selected-response. They write short answers to grade-appropriate questions. Higher-order thinking skills are employed at all levels of testing. Performance-based assessments and assignments give hands-on opportunities to express learning at different rates and levels.


PARENT TIPS: Assessment
Parents can support students in easing any concern or anxiety about assessment:

  • Talk with your child about any tests or assessments.
  • Explain that assessment is a natural and important part of any learning. Tests help students understand their thinking better and make improvements for better performance in the future.
  • Remind your child to pay attention to the directions and to listen carefully as they are read. Encourage your child to take time to understand the questions before selecting an answer.
  • A good night’s rest is the best way to arrive focused on test day!

Remember that assessment is an important and helpful part of learning for students of all ages. Your support and involvement in your child’s education is critical to success in school and in life. Research shows when parents play a key role in their child’s learning, their child’s achievement excels.

Revised 10.16.19
 

What Instructional Resources Are Used In 8th Grade?

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD A LIST OF BOARD APPROVED INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES FOR EIGHTH GRADE
CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD A LIST OF BOARD APPROVED CTAE LEARNING RESOURCES FOR MIDDLE SCHOOL

Instructional resources are provided to students and teachers to support teaching and learning. The titles listed below have been recommended to our Board by a committee of teachers, parents and community representatives and approved through the textbook adoption process (See Board Rule IFAA-R). Additional resources to enhance the instruction are constantly added by local schools and individual teachers.

 

Course/Content Area 

Resource 

Publisher 

English Language Arts

SpringBoard

CollegeBoard

Mathematics

Glencoe GA Math
Grade 8

Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Mathematics

Coordinate Algebra

Holt McDougal

Science

GA Science & Technology Physical Science

HMH

Science

Science Dimensions

HMH

Social Studies

Clairmont Georgia Studies

Clairmont Press

 

What Is My Student's Framework For Learning In 8th Grade

 

8th Grade Teaching & Learning Frameworks
English/Language Arts  |  Math  |  Science  |  Social Studies

 

Learning & Assessing Postcards 


English    |    En Español   |    한국어로    |    Em Português


 

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Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - English Language Arts

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 8th GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR ELA

READING LITERARY – RL

Key Ideas and Details 

ELAGSE8RL1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

ELAGSE8RL2 Determine a theme and/or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text. 

ELAGSE8RL3 Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision. 

Craft and Structure 

ELAGSE8RL4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. 

ELAGSE8RL5 Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style. 

ELAGSE8RL6 Analyze how differences in the points of view of characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor. 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 

ELAGSE8RL7 Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors. 

ELAGSE8RL8 (Not applicable to literature). 

ELAGSE8RL9 Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

ELAGSE8RL10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 

READING INFORMATIONAL – RI

Key Ideas and Details 

ELAGSE8RI1 Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 

ELAGSE8RI2 Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text. 

ELAGSE8RI3 Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories). 

Craft and Structure 

ELAGSE8RI4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts. 

ELAGSE8RI5 Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept. 

ELAGSE8RI6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints. 

Integration of Knowledge and ideas 

ELAGSE8RI7 Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. 

ELAGSE8RI8 Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced. 

ELAGSE8RI9 Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

ELAGSE8RI10 By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 

WRITING – W 

Text Types and Purpose 

ELAGSE8W1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. 

a. Introduce claim(s), acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

ELAGSE8W2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

ELAGSE8W3 Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.

a. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically.
b. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
c. Use a variety of transition words, phrases, and clauses to convey sequence, signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another, and show the relationships among experiences and events.
d. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
e. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events.

Production and Distribution of Writing

ELAGSE8W4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in Standards 1–3 above.)

ELAGSE8W5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language Standards 1–3 up to and including grade 8.)

ELAGSE8W6 Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing & present the relationships between info and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

ELAGSE8W7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

ELAGSE8W8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.

ELAGSE8W9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.

a. Apply grade 8 Reading Standards to literature (e.g., “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new”).
b. Apply grade 8 Reading Standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).

Range of Writing

ELAGSE8W10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

SPEAKING AND LISTENING – SL

Comprehension and Collaboration 

ELAGSE8SL1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
b. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
c. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
d. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding in light of the evidence presented.

ELAGSE8SL2 Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation. 

ELAGSE8SL3 Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. 

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 

ELAGSE8SL4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. 

ELAGSE8SL5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. 

ELAGSE8SL6 Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language Standards 1 and 3 for specific expectations.) 

LANGUAGE – L 

Conventions of Standard English 

ELAGSE8L1 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

a. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
b. Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice.
c. Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
d. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.*

ELAGSE8L2 Demonstrate command of the conventions of Standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.

a. Use punctuation (comma, ellipsis, dash) to indicate a pause or break.
b. Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission.
c. Spell correctly.

Knowledge of Language 

ELAGSE8L3 Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening.

a. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e.g., emphasizing the actor or the action; expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 

ELAGSE8L4 Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.

a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
b. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
c. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.
d. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).

ELAGSE8L5 Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.

a. Interpret figures of speech (e.g. verbal irony, puns) in context.
b. Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
c. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).

ELAGSE8L6 Acquire and accurately use grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. 

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Mathematics

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 8TH GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR MATH

Standards for Mathematical Practice 

The Standards for Mathematical Practice describe varieties of expertise that mathematics educators at all levels should seek to develop in their students. These practices rest on important “processes and proficiencies” with longstanding importance in mathematics education. The first of these are the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections. The second are the strands of mathematical proficiency specified in the National Research Council’s report Adding It Up: adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding (comprehension of mathematical concepts, operations and relations), procedural fluency (skill in carrying out procedures flexibly, accurately, efficiently and appropriately), and productive disposition (habitual inclination to see mathematics as sensible, useful, and worthwhile, coupled with a belief in diligence and one’s own efficacy).

1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 

In grade 8, students solve real world problems through the application of algebraic and geometric concepts. Students seek the meaning of a problem and look for efficient ways to represent and solve it. They may check their thinking by asking themselves, “What is the most efficient way to solve the problem?”, “Does this make sense?”, and “Can I solve the problem in a different way?”

2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 

In grade 8, students represent a wide variety of real world contexts through the use of real numbers and variables in mathematical expressions, equations, and inequalities. They examine patterns in data and assess the degree of linearity of functions. Students contextualize to understand the meaning of the number or variable as related to the problem and decontextualize to manipulate symbolic representations by applying properties of operations.

3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 

In grade 8, students construct arguments using verbal or written explanations accompanied by expressions, equations, inequalities, models, and graphs, tables, and other data displays (i.e. box plots, dot plots, histograms, etc.). They further refine their mathematical communication skills through mathematical discussions in which they critically evaluate their own thinking and the thinking of other students. They pose questions like “How did you get that?”, “Why is that true?” “Does that always work?” They explain their thinking to others and respond to others’ thinking.

4. Model with mathematics. 

In grade 8, students model problem situations symbolically, graphically, tabularly, and contextually. Students form expressions, equations, or inequalities from real world contexts and connect symbolic and graphical representations. Students solve systems of linear equations and compare properties of functions provided in different forms. Students use scatterplots to represent data and describe associations between variables. Students need many opportunities to connect and explain the connections between the different representations. They should be able to use all of these representations as appropriate to a problem context.

5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 

Students consider available tools (including estimation and technology) when solving a mathematical problem and decide when certain tools might be helpful. For instance, students in grade 8 may translate a set of data given in tabular form to a graphical representation to compare it to another data set. Students might draw pictures, use applets, or write equations to show the relationships between the angles created by a transversal.

6. Attend to precision. 

In grade 8, students continue to refine their mathematical communication skills by using clear and precise language in their discussions with others and in their own reasoning. Students use appropriate terminology when referring to the number system, functions, geometric figures, and data displays.

7. Look for and make use of structure. 

Students routinely seek patterns or structures to model and solve problems. In grade 8, students apply properties to generate equivalent expressions and solve equations. Students examine patterns in tables and graphs to generate equations and describe relationships. Additionally, students experimentally verify the effects of transformations and describe them in terms of congruence and similarity.

8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. 

In grade 8, students use repeated reasoning to understand algorithms and make generalizations about patterns. Students use iterative processes to determine more precise rational approximations for irrational numbers. During multiple opportunities to solve and model problems, they notice that the slope of a line and rate of change are the same value. Students flexibly make connections between covariance, rates, and representations showing the relationships between quantities.

The Number System (8.NS) 

Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. 

MGSE8.NS.1 Know that numbers that are not rational are called irrational. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; for rational numbers show that the decimal expansion repeats eventually, and convert a decimal expansion which repeats eventually into a rational number.

MGSE8.NS.2 Use rational approximation of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., estimate π2to the nearest tenth). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of √2 (square root of 2), show that √2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations. 

Expressions and Equations (8.EE) 

Work with radicals and integer exponents. 

MGSE8.EE.1 Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 32 × 3(–5) = 3(–3) = 1/(33) = 1/27.

MGSE8.EE.2 Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations. Recognize that x2 = p (where p is a positive rational number and lxl < 25) has 2 solutions and x3 = p (where p is a negative or positive rational number and lxl < 10) has one solution. Evaluate square roots of perfect squares < 625 and cube roots of perfect cubes > -1000 and < 1000.

MGSE8.EE.3 Use numbers expressed in scientific notation to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 × 10and the population of the world as 7 × 109, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger. 

MGSE8.EE.4 Add, subtract, multiply and divide numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Understand scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g. use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology (e.g. calculators).

Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. 

MGSE8.EE.5 Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance‐time graph to a distance‐time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed. 

MGSE8.EE.6 Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non‐vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b.

Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. 

MGSE8.EE.7 Solve linear equations in one variable.

a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where and are different numbers).
b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms.

MGSE8.EE.8 Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations (systems of linear equations).

a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously.
b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6.
c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair. 

Functions (8.F) 

Define, evaluate, and compare functions. 

MGSE8.F.1. Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output.

MGSE8.F.2. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. 

MGSE8.F.3. Interpret the equation =+ as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function =2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1)(2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line. 

Use functions to model relationships between quantities 

MGSE8.F.4. Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (,) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values.

MGSE8.F.5. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally.

Geometry (8.G) 

Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software. 

MGSE8.G.1 Verify experimentally the congruence properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: lines are taken to lines and line segments to line segments of the same length; angles are taken to angles of the same measure; parallel lines are taken to parallel lines.

MGSE8.G.2. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them.

MGSE8.G.3 Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations and reflections on two‐dimensional figures using coordinates.

MGSE8.G.4 Understand that a two‐dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two‐dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them.

MGSE8.G.5. Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the three angles appear to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so. 

Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem. 

MGSE8.G.6. Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse.

MGSE8.G.7. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions.

MGSE8.G.8. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system.

Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres. 

MGSE8.G.9 Apply the formulas for the volume of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems.

Statistics and Probability (8.SP) 

Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. 

MGSE8.SP.1. Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association.

MGSE8.SP.2. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line.

MGSE8.SP.3. Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height. 

MGSE8.SP.4 Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table.

a. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects.
b. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores? 

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Social Studies

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 8TH GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES

GEORGIA STUDIES 

In eighth grade, students study Georgia geography, history, government, and economics. While the four strands are interwoven, ample opportunity is also provided for in-depth study of the geography of Georgia and the government of Georgia. U.S. historical events are included, as appropriate, to ensure students understand Georgia’s role in the history of the United States.

CONNECTING THEMES AND ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS 

The following connecting themes and enduring understandings will feature prominently in the course and help students increase their understanding and retention of knowledge.

1. CONFLICT AND CHANGE: The student will understand that when there is conflict between or within societies, change is the result.

2. DISTRIBUTION OF POWER: The student will understand that distribution of power in government is a product of existing documents and laws combined with contemporary value and beliefs.

3. INDIVIDUALS, GROUPS, AND INSTITUTIONS: the student will understand that the actions of individuals, groups, and/or institutions affect society through intended and unintended consequences.

4. LOCATION: The student will understand that location affects a society’s economy, culture, and development.

5. MOVEMENT/MIGRATION: The student will understand that the movement or migration of people and ideas affects all societies involved.

6. PRODUCTION, DISTRIBUTION, AND CONSUMPTION: The student will understand that the production, distribution, and consumption of goods/services produced by the society are affected by the location, customs, beliefs, and laws of the society.

7. RULE OF LAW: The student will understand that in a democracy, rule of law influences the behavior of citizens, establishes procedures for making policies, and limits the power of government.

8. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION: The student will understand that technological innovations have consequences, both intended and unintended, for a society.

9. GOVERNMENT: A society increases in complexity and interacts with other societies, the complexity of government also increases.

INFORMATION PROCESSING SKILLS 

The student will be able to locate, analyze, and synthesize information related to social studies topics and apply this information to solve problems and make decisions.

1. Compare similarities and differences
2. Organize items chronologically
3. Identify issues and/or problems and alternative solutions
4. Distinguish between fact and opinion
5. Identify main idea, detail, sequence of events, and cause and effect in a social studies context
6. Identify and use primary and secondary sources
7. Interpret timelines
8. Identify social studies reference resources to use for a specific purpose
9. Construct charts and tables
10. Analyze artifacts
11. Draw conclusions and make generalizations
12. Analyze graphs and diagrams
13. Translate dates into centuries, eras, or ages
14. Formulate appropriate research questions
15. Determine adequacy and/or relevancy of information
16. Check for consistency of information
17. Interpret political cartoons

MAP AND GLOBE SKILLS 

The student will use maps and globes to retrieve social studies information.

1. Use a compass rose to identify cardinal directions
2. Use intermediate directions
3. Use a letter/number grid system to determine location
4. Compare and contrast the categories of natural, cultural, and political features found on maps
5. Use graphic scales to determine distances on a map
6. Use map key/legend to acquire information from historical, physical, political, resource, product and economic maps
7. Use a map to explain impact of geography on historical and current events
8. Draw conclusions and make generalizations based on information from maps
9. Use latitude and longitude to determine location
10. Compare maps of the same place at different points in time and from different perspectives to determine changes, identify trends, and generalize about human activities
11. Compare maps with data sets (charts, tables, graphs) and/or readings to draw conclusions and make generalizations.

HISTORICAL UNDERSTANDINGS 

SS8H1 Evaluate the impact of European exploration and settlement on American Indians in Georgia.

a. Describe the characteristics of American Indians living in Georgia at the time of European contact; to include culture, food, weapons/tools, and shelter.
b. Explain reasons for European exploration and settlement of North America, with emphasis on the interests of the Spanish and British in the Southeastern area.
c. Evaluate the impact of Spanish contact on American Indians, including the explorations of Hernando DeSoto and the establishment of Spanish missions along the barrier islands.

SS8H2 Analyze the colonial period of Georgia’s history. 

a. Explain the importance of the Charter of 1732, including the reasons for settlement (philanthropy, economics, and defense).
b. Analyze the relationship between James Oglethorpe, Tomochichi, and Mary Musgrove in establishing the city of Savannah at Yamacraw Bluff.
c. Evaluate the role of diverse groups (Jews, Salzburgers, Highland Scots, and Malcontents) in settling Georgia during the Trustee Period.
d. Explain the transition of Georgia into a royal colony with regard to land ownership, slavery, alcohol, and government.
e. Give examples of the kinds of goods and services produced and traded in colonial Georgia.

SS8H3 Analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolutionary Era. 

a. Explain the causes of the American Revolution as they impacted Georgia; include the French and Indian War, Proclamation of 1763, and the Stamp Act.
b. Interpret the three parts of the Declaration of Independence (preamble, grievances, and declaration) and identify the three Georgia signers of the document.
c. Analyze the significance of the Loyalists and Patriots as a part of Georgia’s role in the Revolutionary War; include the Battle of Kettle Creek and Siege of Savannah.
d. Analyze the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and explain how those weaknesses led to the writing of a new federal Constitution.

SS8H4 Explain significant factors that affected westward expansion in Georgia between 1789 and 1840. 

a. Explain reasons for the establishment of the University of Georgia, and for the westward movement of Georgia’s capitals.
b. Evaluate the impact of land policies pursued by Georgia; include the headright system, land lotteries, and the Yazoo Land Fraud.
c. Explain how technological developments, including the cotton gin and railroads, had an impact on Georgia’s growth.
d. Describe the role of William McIntosh in the removal of the Creek from Georgia.
e. Analyze how key people (John Ross, John Marshall, and Andrew Jackson) and events (Dahlonega Gold Rush and Worcester v. Georgia) led to the removal of the Cherokees from Georgia known as the Trail of Tears.

SS8H5 Analyze the impact of the Civil War on Georgia. 

a. Explain the importance of key issues and events that led to the Civil War; include slavery, states’ rights, nullification, Compromise of 1850 and the Georgia Platform, the Dred Scott case, Abraham Lincoln’s election in 1860, and the debate over secession in Georgia.
b. Explain Georgia’s role in the Civil War; include the Union blockade of Georgia’s coast, the Emancipation Proclamation, Chickamauga, Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, Sherman’s March to the Sea, and Andersonville.

SS8H6 Analyze the impact of Reconstruction on Georgia. 

a. Explain the roles of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments in Reconstruction.
b. Explain the key features of the Lincoln, the Johnson, and the Congressional Reconstruction plans.
c. Compare and contrast the goals and outcomes of the Freedmen’s Bureau and the Ku Klux Klan.
d. Examine reasons for and effects of the removal of African American or Black legislators from the Georgia General Assembly during Reconstruction.
e. Give examples of goods and services produced during the Reconstruction Era, including the use of sharecropping and tenant farming.

SS8H7 Evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia during the New South Era. 

a. Identify the ways individuals, groups, and events attempted to shape the New South; include the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Expositions, and Tom Watson and the Populists.
b. Analyze how rights were denied to African Americans or Blacks through Jim Crow laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, disenfranchisement, and racial violence, including the 1906 Atlanta Riot.
c. Explain the roles of Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. DuBois, and Alonzo Herndon in advancement of the rights of African Americans or Blacks in the New South Era.
d. Examine antisemitism and the resistance to racial equality exemplified in the Leo Frank case.

SS8H8 Analyze Georgia’s participation in important events that occurred from World War I through the Great Depression. 

a. Describe Georgia’s contributions to World War I.
b. Explain economic factors that resulted in the Great Depression. (e.g., boll weevil and drought).
c. Describe Eugene Talmadge’s opposition to the New Deal Programs.
d. Discuss President Roosevelt’s ties to Georgia, including his visits to Warm Springs and his impact on the state.
e. Examine the effects of the New Deal in terms of the impact of the Civilian Conservation Corps, Agricultural Adjustment Act, Rural Electrification Administration, and Social Security Administration.

SS8H9 Describe the role of Georgia in WWII. 

a. Describe key events leading up to American involvement in World War II; include the Lend-Lease Act and the bombing of Pearl Harbor.
b. Evaluate the purpose and economic impact of the Bell Bomber Plant, military bases, and the Savannah and Brunswick shipyards.
c. Explain the economic and military contributions of Richard Russell and Carl Vinson.

SS8H10 Evaluate key post-World War II developments in Georgia. 

a. Explain how technology transformed agriculture and created a population shift within the state.
b. Explain how the development of Atlanta under mayors William B. Hartsfield and Ivan Allen, Jr. impacted the state.
c. Describe the relationship between the end of the white primary and the 1946 governor’s race.

SS8H11 Evaluate the role of Georgia in the modern civil rights movement. 

a. Explain Georgia’s response to Brown v. Board of Education including the 1956 flag and the Sibley Commission.
b. Describe the role of individuals (Martin Luther King, Jr. and John Lewis), groups (SNCC and SCLC) and events (Albany Movement and March on Washington) in the Civil Rights Movement.
c. Explain the resistance to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, emphasizing the role of Lester Maddox.

SS8H12 Explain the importance of developments in Georgia since the late 20th century 

a. Explain how the continued development of Atlanta under mayors Maynard Jackson and Andrew Young impacted the state.
b. Describe the role of Jimmy Carter in Georgia as state senator, governor, president, and past president.
c. Evaluate the short-term and long-term impacts of hosting the 1996 Olympics on Georgia’s economic and population growth.
d. Analyze Georgia’s role in the national and global economy of the 21st Century, with regard to tourism, Savannah port expansion, and the film industry.

GEOGRAPHIC UNDERSTANDINGS 

SS8G1 Describe Georgia’s geography and climate. 

a. Locate Georgia in relation to region, nation, continent, and hemispheres.
b. Distinguish among the five geographic regions of Georgia in terms of location, climate, agriculture, and economic contribution.
c. Locate key physical features of Georgia and explain their importance; include the Fall Line, Okefenokee Swamp, Appalachian Mountains, Chattahoochee and Savannah Rivers, and barrier islands.
d. Analyze the importance of water in Georgia’s historical development and economic growth.

GOVERNMENT/CIVICS UNDERSTANDINGS

SS8CG1 Describe the foundations of Georgia’s government.

a. Explain the basic structure of the Georgia state constitution (preamble, bill of rights, articles, and amendments) as well as its relationship to the United States Constitution.
b. Explain separation of powers and checks and balances among Georgia’s three branches of government.
c. Describe the rights and responsibilities of citizens according to the Georgia Constitution.
d. List voting qualifications for elections in Georgia.
e. Identify wisdom, justice, and moderation as the three principles in the Pledge of Allegiance to the Georgia Flag.

S8CG2 Analyze the role of the legislative branch in Georgia. 

a. Explain the qualifications for members of the General Assembly and its role as the law-making body of Georgia.
b. Describe the purpose of the committee system within the Georgia General Assembly.
c. Explain the process for making a law in Georgia.
d. Describe how state government is funded and how spending decisions are made.

SS8CG3 Analyze the role of the executive branch in Georgia state government. 

a. Explain the qualifications for the governor and lieutenant governor and their role in the executive branch of state government.
b. Describe how the executive branch fulfills its role through state agencies that administer programs and enforce laws.

SS8CG4 Analyze the role of the judicial branch in Georgia state government. 

a. Describe the ways that judges are selected in Georgia.
b. Analyze the dual purpose of the judicial branch: to interpret the laws of Georgia and administer justice in our legal system.
c. Explain the difference between criminal law and civil law.
d. Explain the steps in the adult criminal justice system beginning with arrest.

SS8CG5 Explain how the Georgia court system treats juvenile offenders. 

a. Explain the difference between delinquent and unruly behavior and the consequences of each.
b. Describe the rights of juveniles involved in the juvenile justice system.
c. Explain the steps in the juvenile justice system when a juvenile is first taken into custody.

SS8CG6 Analyze the role of local governments in the state of Georgia. 

a. Explain the origins and purposes, of city, county, and special-purpose governments in Georgia.
b. Describe how local government is funded and how spending decisions are made.

ECONOMIC UNDERSTANDINGS 

SS8E1 Explain how the four transportation systems (road, air, water, and rail) of Georgia contribute to the development and growth of the state’s economy. 

a. Evaluate the ways in which the Interstate Highway System, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, deepwater ports, and railroads interact to support the exchange of goods and services domestically and internationally.
b. Explain how the four transportation systems provide jobs for Georgians.

SS8E2 Evaluate the influence of Georgia-based businesses on the State’s economic growth and development. 

a. Describe how profit is an incentive for entrepreneurs.
b. Explain how entrepreneurs take risks to develop new goods and services to start a business.
c. Evaluate the economic impact of various industries in Georgia including agricultural, entertainment, manufacturing, service, and technology.

SS8E3 Explain the principles of effective personal money management. 

a. Explain that income is the starting point for personal financial management.
b. Describe the reasons for and the benefits of a household budget.
c. Describe the reasons for and the benefits of savings.
d. Describe the uses of debt and associated risks.

READING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES (RHSS) GRADES 6-8 

Key Ideas and Details 

L6-8RHSS1: Cite specific textural evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. 

L6-8RHSS2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. 

L6-8RHSS3: Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e.g., how a bill becomes law, how interest rates are raised or lowered). 

Craft and Structure 

L6-8RHSS4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. 

L6-8RHSS5: Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally). 

L6-8RHSS6: Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e.g., loaded language, inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). 

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 

L6-8RHSS7: Integrate visual information (e.g., in charts, graphs, photographs, videos, or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. 

L6-8RHSS8: Distinguish among fact, opinion, and reasoned judgment in a text. 

L6-8RHSS9: Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. 

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 

L6-8RHSS10: By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 

WRITING STANDARDS FOR LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE AND TECHNICAL SUBJECTS GRADES 6-8 (WHST) GRADES 6-8 

Text Types and Purposes 

L6-8WHST1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content 

a. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue, acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.
b. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant, accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text, using credible sources.
c. Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
d. Establish and maintain a formal style.
e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.

L6-8WHST2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes. 

a. Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
b. Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
c. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
e. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone.
f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

L6-8WHST3: (See note; not applicable as a separate requirement) 

Production and Distribution of Writing 

L6-8WHST4 Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience 

L6-8WHST5 With some guidance and support from peers and adults, develop and strengthen writings as needed by planning, revision, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. 

L6-8WHST6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently. 

Research to Build and Present Knowledge 

L6-8WHST7: Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 

L6-8WHST8: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. 

L6-8WHST9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis reflection, and research. 

Range of Writing 

L6-8WHST10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.

 

Cobb Teaching & Learning Standards - Science

 

CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD 8TH GRADE COBB TEACHING & LEARNING STANDARDS FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE

8th Grade Physical Science Standards 

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards (CT & LS) for science are designed to provide foundational knowledge and skills for all students to develop proficiency in science. The Project 2061’s Benchmarks for Science Literacy and the follow up work, A Framework for K-12 Science Education were used as the core of the standards to determine appropriate content and process skills for students. The Science Georgia Standards of Excellence focus on a limited number of core disciplinary ideas and crosscutting concepts which build from Kindergarten to high school. The standards are written with the core knowledge to be mastered integrated with the science and engineering practices needed to engage in scientific inquiry and engineering design.

The Cobb Teaching and Learning Standards drive instruction. Hands-on, student-centered, and inquiry-based approaches should be the emphasis of instruction. The standards are a required minimum set of expectations that show proficiency in science. However, instruction can extend beyond these minimum expectations to meet student needs. At the same time, these standards set a maximum expectation on what will be assessed by the Georgia Milestones Assessment System.

Science consists of a way of thinking and investigating, as well a growing body of knowledge about the natural world. To become literate in science, students need to possess sufficient understanding of fundamental science content knowledge, the ability to engage in the science and engineering practices, and to use scientific and technological information correctly. Technology should be infused into the curriculum and the safety of the student should always be foremost in instruction.

Eighth grade students keep records of their observations, use those records to analyze the data they collect, recognize patterns in the data, use simple charts and graphs to represent the relationships they see, and find more than one way to interpret their findings. They develop conceptual understanding of the laws of conservation of matter and conservation of energy, are able to explain the characteristics of the motion of an object (speed, acceleration) and the way that forces may change the state of motion of an object. They use what they observe to explain the difference between physical and chemical changes and cause and effect relationships between force, mass, and the motion of objects. Students in eighth grade construct explanations based on evidence on the difference and similarities between electromagnetic and mechanical waves. Eighth graders plan and carry out investigations, describe observations, and show information in graphical form. The students replicate investigations and compare results to find similarities and differences.

Inquiry

In each unit of study:  Students will analyze problems by asking questions, making observations, gathering information and defining criteria and constraints.

Physical Science 

S8P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the structure and properties of matter.

a. Develop and use a model to compare and contrast pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures.
(Clarification statement: Include heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures. Types of bonds and compounds will be addressed in high school physical science.)
b. Develop and use models to describe the movement of particles in solids, liquids, gases, and plasma states when thermal energy is added or removed.
c. Plan and carry out investigations to compare and contrast chemical (i.e., reactivity, combustibility) and physical (i.e., density, melting point, boiling point) properties of matter.
d. Construct an argument based on observational evidence to support the claim that when a change in a substance occurs, it can be classified as either chemical or physical.
(Clarification statement: Evidence could include ability to separate mixtures, development of a gas, formation of a precipitate, change in energy, color, and/or form.)
e. Develop models (e.g., atomic-level models, including drawings, and computer representations) by analyzing patterns within the periodic table that illustrate the structure, composition, and characteristics of atoms (including protons, neutrons, and electrons) and simple molecules.
f. Construct an explanation based on evidence to describe conservation of matter in a chemical reaction including the resulting differences between products and reactants.
(Clarification statement: Evidence could include models such as balanced chemical equations.)

S8P2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the law of conservation of energy to develop arguments that energy can transform from one form to another within a system.

a. Analyze and interpret data to create graphical displays that illustrate the relationships of kinetic energy to mass and speed, and potential energy to mass and height of an object.
b. Plan and carry out an investigation to explain the transformation between kinetic and potential energy within a system (e.g., roller coasters, pendulums, rubber bands, etc.).
c. Construct an argument to support a claim about the type of energy transformations within a system [e.g., lighting a match (light to heat), turning on a light (electrical to light)].
d. Plan and carry out investigations on the effects of heat transfer on molecular motion as it relates to the collision of atoms (conduction), through space (radiation), or in currents in a liquid or a gas (convection).

S8P3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about cause and effect relationships between force, mass, and the motion of objects.

a. Analyze and interpret data to identify patterns in the relationships between speed and distance, and velocity and acceleration.
(Clarification statement: Students should be able to analyze motion graphs, but students should not be expected to calculate velocity or acceleration.)
b. Construct an explanation using Newton’s Laws of Motion to describe the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.
c. Construct an argument from evidence to support the claim that the amount of force needed to accelerate an object is proportional to its mass (inertia).

S8P4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to support the claim that electromagnetic (light) waves behave differently than mechanical (sound) waves.

a. Ask questions to develop explanations about the similarities and differences between electromagnetic and mechanical waves.
(Clarification statement: Include transverse and longitudinal waves and wave parts such as crest, trough, compressions, and rarefactions.)
b. Construct an explanation using data to illustrate the relationship between the electromagnetic spectrum and energy.
c. Design a device to illustrate practical applications of the electromagnetic spectrum (e.g., communication, medical, military).
d. Develop and use a model to compare and contrast how light and sound waves are reflected, refracted, absorbed, diffracted or transmitted through various materials.
(Clarification statement: Include echo and how color is seen but do not cover interference and scattering.)
e. Analyze and interpret data to predict patterns in the relationship between density of media and wave behavior (i.e., speed).
f. Develop and use a model (e.g., simulations, graphs, illustrations) to predict and describe the relationships between wave properties (e.g., frequency, amplitude, and wavelength) and energy.
g. Develop and use models to demonstrate the effects that lenses have on light (i.e., formation an image) and their possible technological applications.

S8P5. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about gravity, electricity, and magnetism as major forces acting in nature.

a. Construct an argument using evidence to support the claim that fields (i.e., magnetic fields, gravitational fields, and electric fields) exist between objects exerting forces on each other even when the objects are not in contact.
b. Plan and carry out investigations to demonstrate the distribution of charge in conductors and insulators.
(Clarification statement: Include conduction, induction, and friction.)
c. Plan and carry out investigations to identify the factors (e.g., distance between objects, magnetic force produced by an electromagnet with varying number of wire turns, varying number or size of dry cells, and varying size of iron core) that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.
(Clarification statement: Including, but not limited to, generators or motors.)

 

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